Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Describing Gearing and Its Importance in Capital Structure of a Company

A company with low gearing is one that is mainly being funded or financed by share capital (equity) and reserves, whilst the one with a high gearing is mainly funded by loan capital. Now the question to address is which of the two (equity and debt) is cheaper to the company? The answer is that cost of debt is cheaper than cost of equity. This is because debt is less risky than equity and the tax advantage of debt over equity as discussed below: Risk: debt is less risky than equity because: the required return needed to compensate the debt investors is less than the required return needed to compensate the equity investors; †¢the payment of interest is often a fixed amount and compulsory in nature and it is paid in priority to the payment of dividends; †¢in the event of a liquidation, debt holders would receive their capital repayment before shareholders as they are higher in the creditor hierarchy (the order in which creditors get repaid), as shareholders are paid out last. Corporate tax advantage: in the income statement, interest (on debt) is subtracted before the tax is calculated; thus, companies get tax relief on interest.However, dividends (on equity) are subtracted after the tax is calculated; therefore, companies do not get any tax relief on dividends. From the above discussion, we can observe that debt is cheaper than equity when financing a company. However, there are implications of pursing high gearing rather than low gearing. Watzon and Head (2007) described the following as implications of high gearing: Increased volatility of equity returns: the higher a company’s level of gearing, the more sensitive its profitability and earnings are to changes in interest rates.The company’s profit and distributable earnings will be at risk from increases in the interest rate. This risk will be borne by shareholders as the company may have to reduce dividend payments in order to meet its interest payment as they fall due. This kind of ri sk is referred to as financial risk. The more debt the company has in its capital structure, the higher will be its financial risk. Increased possibility of bankruptcy: at very high levels of gearing, shareholders will start to face bankruptcy risk.This is defined as the risk of a company failing to meet its interest payments commitment and hence putting the company into liquidation. This is because interest payment may become unsustainable if profits decrease or interest payments on variable rate debt increase. Reduced credibility on the stock exchange: at a very high level of gearing, investors will be reluctant to buy the company’s shares or to offer further debt. The encouragement of short-termist behaviour: in order to prevent bankruptcy, managers may focus on the short-term need to meet interest payment rather than long term objective of wealth maximisation.Effects of capital gearing upon WACC, company value and shareholder wealth The capital structure of a company refe rs to the mixture of equity and debt finance used by the company to finance its assets. Some companies could be all-equity-financed and have no debt at all, whilst others could have low levels of equity and high levels of debt. The decision on what mixture of equity and debt capital to have is called the financing decision. The financing decision has a direct effect on the weighted average cost of capital (WACC).The weighted-average cost of capital (WACC) represents the overall cost of capital for a company, incorporating the costs of equity, debt and preference share capital, weighted according to the proportion of each source of finance within the business (Cornelius, 2002). The weightings are in proportion to the market values of equity and debt; therefore, as the proportions of equity and debt vary so will the WACC. Therefore the first major point to understand is that, as a company changes its capital structure (i. . varies the mixture of equity and debt finance), it will autom atically result in a change in its WACC. It is important to note that the financing decision (i. e. altering the capital structure) affects the overall objective of maximizing shareholder wealth. This is based on the ground that wealth is the present value of future cash flows discounted at the investor’s required return. The market value of a company is equal to the present value of its future cash flows discounted by its WACC.It is fundamental to note that the lower the WACC, the higher the market value of the company, and vice versa. Therefore, a change in the capital structure to lower the WACC can then increase the market value of the company and thus increase shareholder wealth. As a result, the search for optimal capital structure becomes the search for the lowest WACC, because when the WACC is minimized, the value of the company and shareholder wealth is maximized. Hence, it is the responsibility of finance managers to find the optimal capital structure that will resu lt in the lowest WACC.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

P4 P5 D1 – Unit 21

P4: Describe the meaning of terms in a standard form contract P5: Explain the effect of terms in a contract D1: evaluate the effectiveness of terms in a given contract In this assignment I will be†¦ Describing the meaning of terms in a standard form contract. Explaining the effect of terms in a contract I will also be evaluating the effectiveness of terms in a given contract. A standard form contract is a contract made between 2 or more parities using their standard set of terms. A contract is a set of mutually agreed promises made between 2 or more parties with the intention of creating a legally binding agreement. It is important that the people involved in signing the contract know exactly what they are agreeing to. Types of terms The statements made by the parties under negotiation that are not meant to form part of the contract are called representations. The thing that the parties perform under the contract is called the terms of the contract. For example the co-operative UK breakdown cover has parts in the contract that will benefit both the customer and the insurer. These benefits have been made between the customer and the insurer under negotiation and will have to proceed with the terms of the contract. There are two types of terms which can be found in a contract, these are†¦ * The express term – Clauses in the agreement that are agreed to by both parties. * The implied term – Part of the contract not necessarily included by the parties but automatically included by the law to protect all parties. Express terms are statements made between the parties. These statements can either be made by word of mouth or in writing and the parties intend that these terms will create the fundamental part of the contract. For example, when a customer talks to the insurer of the co-operative UK breakdown cover the agreements of the statements that are going to be made can be made by talking about the agreement or writing the agreements down on paper and then signing it. It is more reliable if both the insurer and the customer write down the agreements because at least there is some sort of proof that these contractual terms have been made. Whereas, when talking about the terms and not having any form of evidence that these agreements have been made there will be no reliability in the contract. Express terms can either be conditions or warranties. Conditions A condition is an essential part of any contract, especially in standard form contracts. A condition is a fundamental part of the agreement and is something which forms the root of the contract. For example, when the co-operative UK breakdown cover is going through the contractual terms the condition of the contract would be the insurer selling themselves to the customer and gaining trust so the customer is more likely the sign the contract and both sides of the contractors are equally happy. If the insurer has sign the contract and the contract states ‘ when the vehicle breaks down, the co-operative UK breakdown cover will be there as soon as possible to help them get back on the road’ and then does not do their duties of the contract this is a clear breach of contract. A breach of contract will entitle the injured party to repudiate and claim damages. To repudiate means to treat the contract as if it is over and invalid. Warranties A warranty is a less important term that does not go to the root of the contract. A warranty will only give the injured part in a breach of contract the right to claim back the damages that have been made. The contract itself cannot be rejected. For example, when the insurer of the co-operative UK breakdown cover has promised to offer 24 hour bed and breakfast if and when their vehicle breaks down, so it gives the insurance company a chance to fix the vehicle in need, and then when the vehicle comes back to the owners and they notice extra faults that have been made in the vehicle this is not a vital part of the contract and will be seen as a warranty. This failure although it is annoying for the customer paying monthly for the insurance company will not mean the contract can be automatically voided. It is very common in business contracts to not only have express terms relating to conditions and warranties but also have a common express key terms included in the contract. For example, these may include†¦ * Exclusion clauses limiting the parties’ responsibilities under the contract * Terms relating to the amount of damages that the parties might receive if things go wrong. Terms allowing parties to vary the contract price known as a price variation clause. Implied Implied terms are not general stated in a contract. Implied terms are introduced into the contract by statute, custom and common law. Terms implied by statute To protect both parties in the Co-operative UK breakdown cover contractual agreements, terms are implied into the contract by virtue of legislation. The best example for the fault is the sale of goods ac t 1979. This sale of goods act has certain terms that have to be followed, such as†¦ * Every seller has the right to sell goods. Where there is a sale of goods by description there is an implied condition that the goods will correspond with that description. * Goods sold are of satisfactory condition and that they are fit for the particular purpose stated. * The sample sales have an implied term condition that the bulk order must correspond with the sample. For example, if the Co-operative UK breakdown cover have stated something in their contract and promised their customers this certain service when they are in need or in general, the exact promise will have to be made otherwise the law can then get involved and the situation will then be takes to the courts. Terms applied by custom An agreement may be subject to customary terms; these terms are not specified by the parties. These could be historical; for example, when a customer signs up to the Co-operative UK breakdown cover must find out if the terms in the contract actually exist. A customer can do this by asking other people who have also joined the insurance company. These should be noted. However, that such a custom will be overruled by any express clause to the contrary. Terms implied by the common law The courts dealing with the situation will be prepared to imply a term into the contract in order to validate the obvious intentions of the parties. For example, if a customer takes the co-operative UK breakdown cover to the courts, the courts will look at all angles. There may be a point that has been overlooked or may not have been clearly stated therefore, the courts will also look at the ‘business fairness’ so that the contract makes commercial common sense. The distinction between express and implied terms Express terms in a contract are those terms that the parties have negotiated between themselves. If any side of the parties have any problems with these negotiations these terms can then be cut out and re-negotiated until both sides of the party feel equal and they can both can come up with an agreement. For example when the UK breakdown insurer and customer do not like what they have agreed to they can then meet each other half way and come up with an alternative in the agreement. This way all the parties are happy with what they are signing up for. On the other hand, implied terms are those terms that the law insists are included in the contract. This way all the parties have no say in the contract. And if they wish to do business with each other they have to follow the implied terms precisely. Impact of contractual terms When the parties in the UK breakdown cover create a contract, the terms are expected to be followed by both sides. The most important part of any contract especially the UK breakdown covers insurance company are for the terms relating to what services that are going to be delivered to the customers. These terms must be delivered if it is stated in the contract. Other important terms would be the quality of the services; the services must be set to a professional level. Time for good performance and rejection of goods Usually in businesses that are delivering goods there would be a time and date set for this. But because the UK breakdown cover provides services, they have to be present for whenever they are needed and called by their customers. if the UK breakdown cover service fail to give the services they have promises to their customers, the customer can then sue for breach of contract. Price variation Many businesses including the Co-operative UK breakdown cover will include in their contracts a term which is known as a price variation this is included into the contract so both parties can feel secure from uncontrollable variations. The prices that were first agreed when the parties negotiated may have changed due to unforeseen rises, this may due to†¦ * Inflation * Fuel costs * Production costs Any business would not want to lose out on their profit and will do what they can to keep their business up and running but in moderation. Payment terms The payment for goods and services to be delivered by the seller is a very important but of the contract. Although for the UK breakdown cover, their services have to be delivered on the g. if a customer has a fault with their vehicle and calls up the UK breakdown cover service, they have to then drive to where their customers are and then deal with the situation in hand. The insurer has to do this because it is part of the terms in the contract. The payment of this will have been negotiated in the contract and will be expected to pay on the day. Quality and quantity of the services delivered When the UK breakdown cover brings forward their services it is expected that what was agreed in the contract will be delivered. The quality of the service will have to be at a professional standard and the insurer helping the customer will have to do anything they can to make the customer/s feel comfortable and happy with the service that has been delivered to them. The law implies into contracts, that the quality of the good and services that are being delivered to the customers are fit for purpose that they were intended. Customers should be free from minor defects in terms to finish and appearance and that they should be safe and lasting. The buyer will have time to examine the vehicle after it has been fixed and if any faults have been made they are allowed to reject the vehicle until the right approach has been made. If the wrong customer service has been delivered the customer has several options available regardless of what was agreed between the parties. if the person helping fix the vehicle produced an extra/larger service then was expected the customer can then†¦ * Accept the quantity expected and reject the rest. Reject the entire delivery/service * Accept the entire delivery at a new contract price. These three points are negotiable and have to be discussed between the insurer and the customer. Reservation of title Reservation of title is when parties retain ownership of the goods until the contract has been completed. It is not unusual for a seller, wishing to protect themselves, to in sert a clause into the contract that ownership of the goods is not to pass to the buyer until the seller has been paid. This is known as a reservation of title clause. For example, customers who have signed up for the UK breakdown cover service will not receive their services until each month or week they have paid what they need to, to be able to claim this. The insurer is allowed to reject them until the payment/s have been made. Exclusion clauses An exclusion clause is a term in a contract that tries to exempt or limit the liability of a party who is in breach of the agreement. ‘The Unfair contract erms act 1977’ came into effect as a parliamentary control over the law relating to exclusions clauses. For example if the customer does not pay for his/her insurance breakdown cover, then the insurer and the business can them restrict the customers right to this service until he/she decides to make payments. These terms are very effective to all the parties involved in a contract. The co-operative UK breakdown cover has terms in their contracts because it holds benefits for both sides of th e parties. Those benefits are†¦ * Terms in a contract give a UK breakdown cover a background and when customers research the business they will see that the business has a record of previous ruling. * If the contract is not genuine this is beneficial for the customer because these faults can be easily noticed and then will be disregarded of not being a ‘live contract’. The terms will then give the customer the right to take action to the breach of contract that has taken place. * All the parties have some sort of control over the contract. This is effective because all the parties get what they want in moderation and agreement.

Monday, July 29, 2019

The aspects of sports merchandising and marketing Essay

The aspects of sports merchandising and marketing - Essay Example By combining the aspects of merchandising and marketing into a sports range, sports merchandising is the way expert sports teams and organizations market and distribute their products to the purchaser. The vast preponderance of the marketing attempt for sports team is accomplished throughout the playing of the teams' games. Professional sports are able to create an implausible amount of experience throughout their games since their uniforms, team colors, and logos are on exhibit for the course of the game to both those in attendance, and the people inspection the game on television. Teams use dissimilar tactics and marketing maneuvers to augment attention and sales in their apparel. We will spotlight on the merchandising efforts of the Wanderer Football Club (WFC), the leader in expert sports organizations in merchandising. I will look at the largely merchandising effort as well as how the league markets itself through a variety of dissimilar avenues (Stephens, Tim. 2002). Sports and the mass media enjoy a symbiotic relationship. On one hand, the mass media, more than anything else, were responsible for turning organized sports from a relatively minor element of culture into a full-blown social institution. On the other hand, sports has been the vehicle for bringing dramatic attention to new mass media forms, which in turn have brought new sporting experiences to the public. This marriage of sports and the mass media has enabled each to flourish. Sports marketers are interested in the relationship between sports and the mass media and in how to use the media to target their messages at sports consumers. In a sense, sport marketing offers a form of narrowcasting, whereby a large group of consumers with common interests is brought together through sports events and programming. The more specific the analysis of the sports-media relationship, the more targeted is the message, and the more effective and powerful is the sports marketing strategy (Buccaneer s Online). 3. Methodology Marketing Strategy What strategic issues confront the sports marketer The list is endless, and this section deals with three of the entries on the list. Licensing products has generated vast amounts of revenue for some teams as marketers take advantage of brand equity in teams and properties. In a sense, the majority marketing engages segmentation of one sort or another. This section examines one method of segmentation and in the process provides a great deal of high-quality advice about segmentation plan. When looking at the merchandising effort of professional sports teams, you must look at the top dog in this, the Wanderer Football Club (WFC). Football is king in the industry for a lot of reasons, none larger than the vast attractiveness and viewing of the sport. In a survey by ESPN/Chilton sports, two-thirds of all Americans consider themselves to be football fans. Maybe even more shocking is the fact that forty-three percent

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Journal 2 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Journal 2 - Essay Example Barfing is something that is universal and yet so private, which makes it a perfect symbol of identity. Myles is telling a story about her political sestina, and then she narrates a story concerning a boat of barfers. She wants to puke herself because of her poem and her own feelings for it. She wants to express her sincere emotions, like a barf would have. In real life, however, it is hard to be â€Å"real† without being judged as fake. I believe she wants to say that to puke is â€Å"to be,† in the terms of â€Å"identity.† To puke is utterly natural in a most disgusting way. Who said it is disgusting anyway? Why cannot people freely barf without being judged? In other words, why cannot people be who they are and who they want to be with without feeling the disgusted eyes of the people around them? Myles is showing the way to knowing thyself through the art of barfing the inner contents of oneself. Myles’ relationship with her mother is troubled and the center of her barfing because as her mother, she is her foundation as a person. Myles, nevertheless, admits her complex relationship with the woman who gave birth to her. On the one hand, she wants to be near her again. I want to confirm with Myles if it is for companionship. Does she want to be with her mother because of her failed relationships with other women? She might be craving for comfort from the original woman of her life. Or, Myles might be blaming her mother for controlling her life, so she might as well suffer with her. Despite the restless emotions, Myles understands that her mother has not completely destroyed her. Living with her mother has turned her into a puke hater. She must have wanted to puke because she has a hard time being who she is with her mother. Myles cannot directly express her identity to her mother. Puking is her release. It is her way of â€Å"being† without being so blatant about it. Forming and

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Which of the current management challenges,globalization,managing Assignment

Which of the current management challenges,globalization,managing adiverse workforse, technological innovation and ethics are likely to have the greast impact on Googles future operation - Assignment Example For instance, managing a diverse workforce and adhering to ethical and moral codes of conduct would continue to impact the organization’s future operations; therefore, management must be adept in apprising themselves of current and future trends affecting these areas. However, there are more relevant issues affecting technological applications where Google could be affected; such as security issues, breaching privacy and confidentiality concerns and protection of personal and organizational domain from hackers, cyber terrorism, and other forms of intrusion. As such, Google’s future operation would depend on how their organization could significantly assist in the improvement and solution of cybercrime, for instance, or other concerns affecting future technological applications. By reinventing themselves and by assuming a proactive stance in scanning the external global environment for opportunities and addressing eminent threats, Google should be able to sustain market dominance and leadership in

Friday, July 26, 2019

Essay Response Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Response - Essay Example rely affect the people who earn less money, the US government will save a lot of money by taking this step, instead of giving the money to poor families the government will keep that money intact using it for other purposes. There has been a lot of hue and cry about the same and it is unfair to withdraw support, the poor people must not be left all on their own the government must help them in every possible way. â€Å"It is also believed that more than one million higher income earners will also be worse off as a result of the Governments changes to the private health insurance rebate, announced in last nights Budget. Under changes to family tax benefit A, from July low-income families earning less than $42,000 a year will lose 35c per week - $18 a year - for each child aged under 12, and $26 a year for each child aged 13 to 15.† (Changes to Family Tax) The Budget delivered to the congress is expected to be somewhere around $ 3.6 Trillion. It is also expected that by 2013 the deficit of the US is expected to fall to as low as $ 533 Billion, the current deficit is much higher than what it is going to be in 2013. A very good step has been taken by the government; the government has set aside a whopping amount of $250 Billion to rescue the current recession crisis. This money will mainly be used to bailout several big banks in order to keep the economy functioning the way it used to prior to recession. This money is expected to bring things right back on track. The congress has already set aside an amount of $ 700 Billion for the same and the increase in amount only goes to show the desperation to put an end to the current crisis. Education funding has also been a sector that has hogged the limelight in this Federal Budget; the President has promised to fund the education sector much better than ever. He has promised to strengthen the education sector and this will only help the country rise to unprecedented heights. The president is a very ambitious man and he

Boston Beer Company Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Boston Beer Company - Case Study Example The management of at the company has market the innovations made by the company as the major drivers of success in the marketing of the beer. The ability of the company to produce different beers under the same brand has enabled the majority of the operations owned by the company to flourish. The company has been able to progress based on its ability to sell beers that are crafted for the individual market tastes. It is able to point out the unique market tastes by conducting extensive market research on the beers and the flavor preferences of the market. This way, the company is able to produce the beers that cover all the needs of the people leading to an inclusive variety. Therefore, the company is able to run on its innovative approaches when addressing the market needs. Creation of 18 varieties of the brands and the increasing growth in the crafts and imports beer markets is an indicator of the market success(Lane and Import 7). Lane, Samuel, and Lane Import. Jonathan Delgado, Marvins Air Conditioning Corp Janine De Veer, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceutical, Inc. Carol Gutierrez, The Boston Beer Company Gladys Giselle Rodriguez, Trans Americanc. HB Inc.. Academy of Health Care Management 6.2 (2009): 7.

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Persuasive memo Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Persuasive memo - Assignment Example Because of this, I would like to propose a comprehensive training program that will initially focus on our front-liners as they are in direct contact with the customers. Based on the conducted survey, 44% of the customers who took time to write comments complained of slow service while 50% suggested other pastry products because of â€Å"soggy Danishes.† For employees, many of them commented about the desire to be trained. From these feedback, it can be assumed that a comprehensive training program would be welcomed by the employees and the resulting acquired skills would result to service and products customers would be happy with. The proposed training program will be specifically designed to meet the standards of the company with regard to production and customer service. The survey suggests that these are the areas that will greatly benefit from immediate training. It is also proposed that that the training program be implemented immediately while more clients are satisfied with the company’s services. A happy customer can help with the marketing and boost the company’s financial numbers. Designing and implementing any new program will incur costs. Also, even with the proper training, some employees may still not manifest the newly-acquired learning or skill. Nevertheless, given the results of the two surveys conducted and in line with the company’s business improvement program, I am of the mind that this program is important to despite the expense it will bring to the organization. It is possible that with solid research and careful planning, the potential costs and downsides of the suggested endeavor will be minimal compared to the benefits the company will attain in the future. The sooner we invest on training our employees, the sooner we can satisfy our clients and the people working for us. Based from my experience in the industry, these two groups can have a big influence on the success of any company. Capitalizing on an

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Are Americans really free Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Are Americans really free - Essay Example Historically, the USA is considered the birthplace of democracy, and which is important - democracy is an inborn feature of the American nation. The founding fathers of the Constitution of the United States can by no means be called the creators of our freedom - in fact, it already existed in the minds and, which is more important, lives of the colonists. Taking into account all the above said, it seems irrelevant to even question the fact that the Americans are really free yes, things are not so unambiguous in the modern society, and there are phenomena and facts that certainly limit our freedom. In this report, we will concentrate upon the problem of the USA as a panoptic society and the way it limits personal freedom. At the end of the 20th century (1975), a French philosopher Michel Foucault wrote a book Surveiller et punir (Disciple and punish) that gave a historical account of European prison, and the ideas contained in this book have become the basis for the new philosophy. The reason why we have to talk about Foucault's work is because the philosopher was the one who gave a new birth to the term "panopticum" that was first used by Jeremy Bentham in the 18th century to describe a prison allowing to constantly observe the prisoners, and which is more, ever since Foucault's book was released, the modern society began to be regarded as "panoptic" by some researchers. Foucault shows, in effect, how the system of surveillance first practiced in nineteenth-century prisons - those 'complete and austere institutions', as Baltard called them - has increasingly spread throughout modern Westernized societies. This dynamic is terminologically reflected in the shift from what Jrgen Habermas originally called the 'structural transformation of public space' to what he came to call the 'colonization of the life-world'. Colonization has returned home, equipped with appropriate technology. A new, and no less 'peculiar', Apparatus is central to Foucault's account: Bentham's Panopticum. (The Lesser Evil 2003, p. 55) Whereas M. Foucault begins from describing a prison, he finally reaches the conclusion that practically all social institutions are panoptic by their nature - i.e. hospital's wards, school or university's classes, etc. In a panopticum, "[a]n individual is an object of information, but is never a subject of communication". (Foucault 1999, pp. 292) Hence, since panopticum is meant to keep people from communicating, it is a way to suppress their freedom. As Foucault has it: "If there are criminals in the cells, there is no danger of a plot,.. if there are ill people-there is no danger of spreading infection. If there are insane people - there will be no risk of mutual violence; if these are schoolchildren - they will never be able to cheat; if workers are kept there-there are none of the pleasures which can keep them away from work". (Foucault 1999, pp. 293-294) For the French philosopher, panopticum is not only a certain particular organisation - it is, in fact, a principle, a mechanism that acts in the society and serves as means of suppressing individualism, controlling people, turning them into a crowd, forcing onto them some particular type of behaviour - all in all, limiting their

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

The effect on Taiwanese youths caused by mobile and computer games Essay

The effect on Taiwanese youths caused by mobile and computer games - Essay Example t times will be more interested in Television than in their parents, some preferring the sitting to watch TV rather than interact with other family members. The institution of family dinner has been responsible for strengthening the family, and research has proven that youths who frequently sat through one are less likely to be inclined towards decadent behavior such as violence and drug abuse. Today, these times have been relegated in of importance and family diners are hurried affairs with members in a rush to go back to their digital world. The bonds uniting family have been considerably weekend since people seem to prefer to spend times online than with their families (Small). Technology poses a myriad of ill effects for children; the list is extensive from childhood obesity, computer addiction to stunted social skills. Many parents use the TV to baby sit young children, while others buy their teens, pre-teen children laptops, and smart phones, with virtually unlimited access to the worldwide web, failing to consider the risks. Spending too much time watching TV can and has turned many children into couch potatoes, as a result, they hardly leave the house to play ergo get no exercise. Inevitably, obesity and other complications and this may scar the child for life not to mention making them venerable to conditions like diabetes; this is in addition to poor academic performance (Jussof 152). Teens engage in social networking and some of them become fully addicted to their mobile phones, and laptops this is often detrimental to their social skill and ability to interact face to face. Having computers in their rooms allows them easy access to normally restricted material such as extreme violence or pornographic content, this motivates children to attempt what they... The effect on Taiwanese youths caused by mobile and computer games This essay if focused on the effects of technology on the human brain with the view of proving that too much dependence on technology denies the brain a the benefits it gets from a social interaction especially with family. Millions have been laid off to make room for machines, Social skills have deteriorated thanks to addiction to social network especially among the youths and parents cannot be sure their children are safe from cyber stalkers. New crimes have emerged, given way by technology, and old ones have improved as criminals use technology to commit them and avoid detention. This paper will contest that technology despite the many advantages poses a host of problems both overt and covert to an individual, society family and even children who are too young to manage its vast capabilities. There is no denying that technology through communication and mass media information can move around the world in real time, and one learns the news in a different country at the same time as the residents. Cooking has never been easier with microwaves and electric cookers and travelling never aster more effect or comfortable because of developments in the transport. The internet has revolutionized and enhanced nearly every aspect of communication, which is vital in shaping human destiny (McFarlane 2). In this article, the writer discusses the negative impacts of global warming from a retrospective and futuristic perspective. He also mentions the various action attempted by world leader to mitigate it.

Monday, July 22, 2019

Mcdonalds Healthier Happy Meals Essay Example for Free

Mcdonalds Healthier Happy Meals Essay In order to successfully make these changes McDonald’s hired a research group to conduct an extensive research and present them with a cost effective solution. The Research Questions The questions the company had to look into to resolve this issue was: * How can they make the meals for the children healthier while maintaining the convenience that fast food is known for? * How can they cut the calories from their existing meals? * How can they make healthy food desirable to children? * How can they keep these healthier options cost effective? * What would be the best marketing strategy to launch these healthier changes? The Hypothesis A hypothesis explores a supposition or proposed explanation made on the basis of limited evidence as a starting point for further investigation (Merriam-Webster, 2013). In the exploration to raise a question and find an answer, the company has to face the question: how can they make the meals for the children healthier while maintaining the convenience that fast food is known for? Through the years McDonald’s has added a couple new features to their menu like a wider selection in desserts, a value menu, and select new refreshing healthier choices to their fast food chain. But the question now is, how can they further cut the calories from these meals? Yes, McDonald’s has gained a fine respect in the fast food industry for upgrading to healthier choices, but now the kids menu may need some revamping on their own. If the regular menu can provide healthier choice selections like salads, less than 400 calories, and weight watcher approved items, what can they do about happy meals? A solution to providing a healthier selection is to offer a more beneficial meal that kids can enjoy. Apple bags, celery sticks, carrots, reduced milk, baked instead of fried items and healthier meat. Those are just a couple of suggestions to an issue that is easy to solve. The main purpose is to change the world one step at a time, and healthier living for is the new road to take. The Variables Local societies are becoming more health conscience and looking for healthier options when going out to eat. Even though McDonald’s did not follow the popular approach by luring people in through the use of famous celebrities, people felt that offering toys with their Happy Meals were unacceptable. The variables in a research scenario are considered to be independent (IV) and dependent variables (DV). In this research scenario the independent variables are the food and the marketing strategy, while the amount of calories and interest of the children are the dependent variables. Many children were attracted to McDonald’s Happy Meals for the toy they got with it and this is what their marketing strategy revolved around. In April 2012, The Time’s released the article â€Å"Why we’re eating fewer happy meals†. The article’s main focus was McDonald’s use of toys with their Happy Meals and the use of a clown who â€Å"is hell-bent on the creepy mission of luring children into McDonald’s, where they’ll be fattened up and primed for a lifetime of regular fast-food dining visits† (Tuttle, 2012, p. 1). Along with improving their Happy Meals, McDonald’s has also changed their marketing strategy. They still offer the toys but it is no longer their main focal point. Instead they now show Ronald McDonald playing around, participating in healthy activities and proclaiming that a healthier life style is a lot of fun.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Reflective essay of personal and professional development

Reflective essay of personal and professional development This assignment is a critical analysis and reflection of my continuing personal and professional development (CPPD) needs in practice. This account will identify practical needs that I must improve with supportive evidence based research, and evaluate the impact of this need for my personal development as a future qualified nurse. My learning need was with assertiveness in communication when working with a staff nurse during admission. To meet the need and demonstrate the ability to engage in advancing my care, Gibbs (1988) framework model of reflection will be used. To maintain confidentiality as emphasised by the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC 2008), a pseudonym Tommy will be used to protect the patient’s anonymity. In addition, I will be using the post-registration education and practice (PREP) guidelines (NMC 2011) to maintain up to date knowledge and skills as well as empowering a lifelong learning in my nursing career. (NMC 2012) My skills in communication have improved in all contact and this has been acknowledged in every practice. However, I thought of this learning need, when I recognised my weakness was with assertiveness in communication when working with a staff nurse, faced with a difficult patient during admission. I took part in this learning activity in November, 2014 during my placement in hospital. I identified this need during the second week of placement, as I was able to perform patient admissions under the supervision of my mentor. The need to improve this skill was established from my mentor’s feedback and I agreed that it must be developed in order to help avoiding errors in future practice, improving my decision-making skills and professional satisfaction. I have spent a good amount of time to research and critically analyse this learning need However I felt this could be an ongoing process of improvement as Webb (2011) identified, supported by the Department of Health’s (201 3) ongoing process of improvement in the NHS to be more efficient and less bureaucratic. I again felt this was important for me to work on because it had an impact on the patient and me as a future qualified nurse (Fowler, 2008). Tommy is a 50 year old who suffers from right leg cellulitis and lives alone with his cat. I felt my first meeting with Tommy was challenging as I found it difficult to present myself as a self-assured, assertive and empathetic student nurse due to the impression that the situation was out of my comfort zone. I observed from the beginning of the visit that this gentleman was unable to cope; however I felt that I could not make a direct statement without coming across as patronising or a dominant student nurse. On the positive side, I chose to improve this learning need so that I would learn to be prepared with the knowledge and set of skills I must have in managing complex patient care in future placements (Fowler, 2008). Having encountered patients who have refused requests from other student nurses and staff nurses alike by expressing their dislikes, disagreements and sometimes even anger when offered treatment, I have observed that patients sense how the student nurses present themselves and could base their decision on the student nurses’ abilities to communicate assertively (Fowler, 2008). This also made me think about my self-awareness and empathetic skills. As I listened to Tommy’s emotional concerns, he opened up about being terrified of not having anyone in his house to feed his cat while he was in hospital because he had no close relatives. I responded calmly and confidently, using clear language that my intention was to obtain his permission to allow health professionals offer long term support to him (Fischhoff et al, 2011). As student nurses, our main role involves patient interaction and several studies have indicated that student nurses lack assertive skills evidenced by Bekkum and Hilton (2013) McCabe and Timmins (2005) qualitative study in two schools (n=30). It highlighted that most student nurses were assertive but chose not to display this skill to maintain positive interpersonal relations and avoid conflict. However, quantitative study (n=72) by Almost (2006) deemed it important to measure nursing students’ level of assertiveness prior to, and near completion of their pre-registration programme and to offer help throughout their programme to develop their assertiveness. Almost also considered the conflicts mainly developed from the multi-professional roles that student nurses have and that the basic nursing functions of caring and controlling can result in tension. Many researchers have challenged these such as Iglesias and Vallejo (2012) qualitative study identified that work have established that conflict resolution techniques can be achieved through compromise and collaboration which the nurses can use for their specific work environments. However all the previously mentioned approaches suffered from serious limitations as Tommy’s safety could have been compromised when nurses failed to speak up or be heard, identified by Page’s (2004) qualitative study. I found Almost (2013) very appropriate when giving personal care because this technique would have enhanced my learning need earlier in my nursing programme to improve patient care. Bekkum Hilton, (2013) qualitative study support and acknowledgement on these account findings imply that, education programs ought to be taken into account. The perceptions of the participants risks involved in not being assertive and the focal point must be on changing these perceptions rather tha n attempting to change student nurses’ values or focusing solely on specific assertive behaviours to improve student emotional intelligence. Based on the findings, I realised that my practice was out of date therefore would cost the National Health Service (NHS) and impact negatively on patients’ care. As identified by Smith’s (2012) phenomenological study, 75 per cent (n=20) of student nurses felt unable to verbally express their concerns when working with qualified nurses. Yet Jones’ (2013) qualitative study identified that 60 per cent (n=30) of student nurses felt confident by the end of their training. However, there is little consensus in the research available although I feel my experience reflects Smith’s (2013) findings. My inability to be assertive during patient admission was because I was working with an experienced qualified nurse and hiding behind my mentor limited my development in skill. This impacted on my clinical ability when I failed to be an assertive student nurse. It also shows in these research studies I was not using up to date practice. White’s (2009) phenomenological study identified that 75 per cent (n=28) nursing students in clinical placements suffer from self-doubt, have anxiety about their clinical performance and do not possess the characteristics of strong self-confidence. A qualitative study conducted for student nurses by Jones, Mccoy and Pitt (2013) have indicated that majority of student and staff relationships highlight that a sense of belonging was central for student nurses for a good clinical experience. A students sense of belonging and feeling a part of the team were essential before students could learn. This is reflected in Lathlean and Levett-Jones’ (2009) quantitative study (n=200) of student findings on third year student nurses who participated in the study as they had been on a number of clinical placements. This explanation, however, seemed to overlook the fact that many students feel compelled to work hard in order to fit in the nursing team rather than become motivated to le arn. This has made me realise that although being in a good nursing team, I would still prioritise looking after my patients by paying more attention to the patient needs and expectations. A qualitative study conducted by Lyndon (2006) mentioned that student nurses’ ability to make a clinical decision could be influenced by patient situation, availability of resources and interpersonal relationships. Student nurses, however, on a variety of situations, can experience moral distress as Ganske, Iseminger, Lachman and Murray (2012) have identified in their phenomenological study. These two articles revealed that the ability to communicate with patients should not cause moral distress as student nurses would neither be aggressive nor patronising, nonetheless the interaction would achieve the patient’s best interest. This is reinforced by Grumbach and Bodenheimer, (2004) qualitative study which identified (n=18) of student nurse, who noted that greater disability may be as a result of anxiety in some cases and loss of self-confidence. However, Begley (2010) phenomenological study (n=20) identified and argues, little has been investigated to explain the reasons why assertive behaviour occurs in one situation and not in another. Results suggest that, student nurses’ standard measures of assertiveness and of anxiety are irrespective of their scores p=00.1 chances. One should consider the consequences of student practitioners being assertive, while making a decision regarding how to behave I felt this was helpful in reminding me how important self- confident skills can aid improved patient care. Although, their underlying theories of subjectivity are very different, there are some important affinities between the researches that correlate which I believe would help me care better in future pla cement. In addition, Begley’s (2010) qualitative study established that patients were to be considered as partners in their health care delivery. Trust does not come easily for people and I have since learnt from past experiences that patients need to be included and actively involved in the planning and evaluation of their care. By learning to ask open questions helped promote and encouraged patient expression and enabled patients to enhance trust in a relationship as I have shown my interest and investment in the patient’s care and treatment. This study has an impact in addressing my need and offered help on how to be assertive when dealing with difficult patients. As highlighted by White (2014) qualitative study, majority of student nurse depend on their mentors to be assertive and sometimes adopt it as coping strategies. Even though, this is a small number of student nurses, (n=30) to base a judgement on, it provides statistically relevant data and allows an insight into practical experiences. I also felt this research was significant for me to work on my assertiveness, because it had an effect towards the patient and me as a future qualified nurse. I solely depended on my mentors for assertiveness as a coping strategy. Conversely, these poor coping strategies I adopted were highlighted in a qualitative study by Fischhoff et al, (2011) where common coping strategies utilised by student nurses being assertive in clinical settings are explored. Although this is a small sample size (n=18) which does not provide statistically relevant data, it is qualitative design allows an insight into the student nurses experience of assertiveness coping strategies (Parahoo, 2006). I found these results of the thematic critical analysis linked to my own clinical experience, including the poor coping assertiveness strategy I adopted. This was due to underestimating my capacity from the onset of being self-assured and self-confident without being aggressive (REF). I found that these researches gave me insight into how unethical and limiting avoidance practices are when dealing with patients, which was seen in a small number of participants in this study (n=3) (Morris Turnball, 2006). I felt this was helpful in remindi ng me how important assertiveness skills can improve patient care (Morris Turnbull, 2006). Besides, Fischhoff et al, (2011), descriptive study postulates assertiveness in student nurses who become attached to their mentors remain as consistent helpers for weeks in their placement during the period from the first till the third year, and it is suggested that this is due to the students underestimating their capacity from the onset of being self-assured. Although this is a small sample size (n=207) which does provide statistically significant relevant data, 60 percent (n=127) were more positive compared to 40 percent (n=83). Its quantitative design allows an insight into the student nurses’ experience of assertiveness skills (Begley, 2010). Nonetheless, Phillips and Simmonds (2012) phenomenological study supported this descriptive study and further on said this is a key concern for some student nurses within practice setting. The concept of assertiveness and understanding concept as student nurses will enable them to consider that the patient’s aggressiveness might be about other issues rather than their care. In a phenomenological study of (n=50) nursing students in London, Monsu (2014) identified that greater disability may be as a result of anxiety and loss of self-confidence dealing with a difficult patient. Findings of these researches do not seek to be generalised but were reliable to me due to the appropriateness of the methodology and the thematic analysis being correctly applied. This will aid me in caring for my patients in future practice. In a questionnaire survey of (n=200) student nurses in London, Smith (2013) identified that 70 per cent (n=49) of university students preferred mentors to do all the assertiveness communication for them due to underestimating their ability. Only 20 per cent (n=4) of students responded and of those who did respond, many of them did not fully complete the questionnaire. The data suggested that 70 per cent of students who preferred a mentor to do all the assertiveness communication do not constitute very strong evidence. Yet Monsu (2013) argues that from his own experience as a student in placement, there was a strong attachment with mentors being assertive in all him / her communication which did help with the assertiveness skills needed for future practice. This cannot be generalised as Monsu (2013) is not referring to a piece of empirical research but to his own experience. Having identified the context of Monsu’s (2013) own experience argument, I found it very relevant to me and it topped my hierarchy of evidence, but does not appear to have been undertaken in a thorough manner to help my caring for patients in future due to their lack of a soundly-based qualitative theory compared to Smith (2013). Having discussed with my mentor what happened during the admission; it felt good to have attempted the interaction with the patient and recognised some of his needs. Even though the patient seemed reluctant, I demonstrated the ability to remain calm although I did struggle with my approach when I spoke to him about offering more support. Instead, I focused to help the client respond to my questions and identify what his concerns were. I believe during that incident, I showed assertive behaviour because I maintained my duty of care to the patient. I have reflected that this would have an effect on my clinical ability if I had failed to be the patient’s advocate. With the DOH (2009) updated work on providing guidelines on consent to treatment and putting these principles of consent into practice, my actions caused me to consider my practice whether obtaining informed consent would be an issue. Tommy fully realised that he should comply with the nurse as she understood the conseq uences if his pains were not treated (Cole, 2012). According to Baldwin, Duffield, Fry and Merrick (2011) the interaction between the decision-making, skill development opportunities, social support and identity comes with the nursing role so as to be prepared for the upcoming nurse population to meet new challenges. When this type of situation happens again, I believe I have the skill to show my assertiveness skills by using compromise as well as recognising the boundaries of my actions. Using clinical decision skills and asking open questions, which I can gain from meeting other patients would enable me to show that I am a self- assured, reliable and trustworthy student nurse. I need to try and achieve leadership skills that could be essential for patient satisfaction and to achieve this, I have learnt to engage in leadership activities such as handovers and undertaking tasks on behalf of my mentor. I recognised that once I fitted into the clinical environment, I needed to be more actively involved in challenging clinical situations such as detecting unpredictable patient deterioration and learning to make quick clinical decisions. Cook Leathard (2004) suggested that good student nursing leadership and good quality nursing care will be effective if nurses go through leadership training program mes during the early stages of their career. This can help me in preparation to become more aware of how I feel, think and act in front of my patients. Reflecting and learning to be assertive can increase my confidence and self-esteem through appreciating what I have done well and maturely, accepting the improvements I must make to become a better nurse in the future. Having said that, I was satisfied that I had the opportunity to practice nursing handover, as it is one of the vital roles of a qualified nurse and one aspect of nursing care that is required of me when I am qualified.Loseby, Hudson Lyon (2013) wrote, handovers are information that can influence the delivery of care. In the process of this learning experience I felt well supported by my mentor giving me several opportunities to practice my handover until I felt more confident and less anxious because she created quality time for me and necessary feedback that helped my learning need as well as other aspects ofnursing. McCloughen, O’Brien Jackson (2010) defines a mentor as someone that helps others grow by teaching them, encouraging them and being interested in their success. This is also further supported byHamric, B.A., Hanson, M.C., Tracy, F.M., OGrady, T.E.,(2013) who indicated that a good mentor is one who spends quality time to foster growth, committed to the developme nt of their learning need, willing to share and feedback on any rough spot in their career development. In conclusion, I have critically analysed and reflected on clinical learning needs, which are essential for my continuing professional development. As a student, critical analysis and reflection helped to facilitate good learning outcomes so that I can relate and apply concepts to clinically orientated situations as well as explore and evaluate evidence. Also my clinical learning need was acknowledged through mentor feedback by showing assertive skills in communication with difficult patients. This need is an on-going process of development for me. However; I recognised that attempting interactions with patients and collaborating with nursing staff will help in my development to be a more self-assured nurse. Participating and engaging in leadership activities such as handovers and task delegation would be beneficial at this stage of my learning. Through the reflection and recognition of these learning needs, I could only move forward and continue to develop my learning proficiency as a student nurse towards professional competency as a qualified nurse. 1 | Page

A Historical Sketch Of ELT In India English Language Essay

A Historical Sketch Of ELT In India English Language Essay Introduction This study aims at studying the language needs of under graduates students, revealing the discrepancies of different participants with respect to actual English language skills and target language skills and then suggest corrections in curriculum, wherever required. The study is conducted at Sant Gadge Baba University; Amravati, on students studying in under-graduate courses.This chapter presents information on the background and purpose of the study. Next, research questions are presented. Finally, definitions of some basic terms used in this study are presented. Background to the Study Global English World English is broadly categorised into three varieties: English as a Native Language (ENL), English as a Second Language (ESL) and English as a Foreign Language (EFL). Accordingly, there are three geographical divisions of English speaking nations viz., ENL territories, ESL territories and EFL territories (Braj B. Kachru in Koul N. Omkar (eds.) 1992: 2 -3, cited in Hasan Kamrul Md,2004).1 ENL territories In countries like the UK, the USA, Canada, Australia and New Zealand, English is the first or often the only language of communication among the people. In ENL territories people use the mother tongue variety of English. ESL territories- In ESL situations English plays a vital role and is used to perform a variety of official, educational, and other roles. For ESL speakers, although English is not their native language but it is an important language in their professional and social lives. Like India, English is used as a second language in almost all the former British colonies (Singapore, Nigeria, South Africa etc.) Often the persons second language becomes the first functional language in adulthood in such cases. In ESL countries English is generally given importance in the educational framework of the nation and taught in schools and colleges. EFL territories In some countries English neither enjoys the status of native language nor second language. It is treated as foreign language and its use is restricted to occupational and educational purposes. In countries like China and Japan, English is taught and learnt mainly for reasons of trade and business and it does not play any role in social interactions. A historical sketch of ELT in India: Pre-colonial period Vasco da Gamas discovery of the sea route to India also paved way for the introduction of English in the sub-continent in 1498.However, it was only in the 18th century, when the Mughal Empire was on the decline and the English East India Company had secured a foothold in India that Indias tryst with the English language began. During this period, English was the language of communication of the elite people and was not the lingua franca of the people. Colonial period With the consolidation of the activities of the East India Company in eighteenth century, began the efforts of teaching English in the South Asian subcontinent. As far back as 1759, Christian missionaries entered India and the 1787 despatch welcomed the efforts of Rev. Swartz to establish schools for the teaching of English. Another significant effort was the publication of the first book, The Tutor, to teach English to the non-Europeans by author John Miller in 1797. This book was published in Serampore in Bengal. Thus the socio- historical stage for the role of English in education was set by the end of the 18th century. T.B. Macaulay, in the Minutes of 1835, for the first time, formally introduced the teaching of English in the South Asian subcontinent. In his Minutes he mentioned the importance and usefulness of the education that would be given to the natives through the medium of English. There were primarily two objectives of such education. The first was to create through this education a class of natives who, despite their blood and colour, would be English in culture and be able to interpret between the rulers and the subjects:à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦a class who may be interpreters between us and the millions whom we govern a class of persons, Indians in blood and colour, but English in taste, in opinion, in morals and in intellect (quoted in Macaulay 1835, quoted in Thirumalai, 2003)2. The second was to create a demand for the European institutions. Although both the objectives were designed to serve the interest of the Masters, not of the subjects, but it provided the framework of formal English ed ucation to India which to a large extent is followed even today.. Thus by the middle of the nineteenth century the aims and objectives of teaching English were very clearly laid out For the remaining period of colonial rule there were a few landmarks in the development of English such as: The establishment of universities in Kolkata, Mumbai and Chennai in 1857 and in Dhaka in 1920 Selective education and training in administration, imparted through English, the Indian University Act (1904) The Resolution on Educational Policy (1913). For the entire period of British rule four broad developments with regard to English education took place: 1600 -1800: During the early years the variety of English used was imitative and formal. It was the language of the rulers and the elite class. 1850 -1947: During the later years more varieties (from very high to very low) appeared. Indian intellectuals and freedom fighters effectively used English as tool to for political awakening and resurgence. Interaction with vernacular languages: As the use of English penetrated the different sections of the educated Indians, a new variety of English emerged. This variety of English had a very distinct Indian flavour and a number of words of vernacular origin were absorbed in English, e.g., Brahmin. Coolie, jungle, and so on. Methodology: Language studies were based on literature and grammar and the means of studies was the grammar-translation method. The spoken component of the language was not practised. The emphasis was given on correctness and complete sentence construction. English also played a critical role in Indias struggle for independence as it became the language of political awakening and resurgence. Even Mohandas K. Gandhi (1869-1948), although a strong advocator of use of national language, used English language effectively to put forth his message to the British Government . Post colonial period Post independence, the perception of English as having an alien power base changed. Kachru notes that English now has national and international functions that are both distinct and complementary. English has thus acquired a new power base and a new elitism (Kachru 1986, p. 12 as cited in Baldridge, 2002).3 For most part of the twentieth century, it remained a language used by a select few. English primarily remained the language of law and administration. The Present State Twentieth century witnessed great advancements in science and technology and this enabled many new ways of sharing information and doing business. Indias international commercial activities led to the need for acquiring proficiency in English as an international language. Now, English was not just the language of the administrators and policy makers but also became the language of the business and professional class. In India, the English speaking population is only about 3-4%, but with Indias massive population, India is among the top three countries in the world with the highest number of English speakers. In terms of numbers of English speakers, the Indian subcontinent ranks third in the world, after the USA and UK. Most English speakers in India are second language speakers, in 1971, it was estimated that the rate of bilingualism in India was 13% and 99% of English speakers are second-language speakers (Mahapatra 1990: 7 cited in Hohenthal , 2003).4 Spolsky points out that English is the most widely spoken second language, followed by Hindi. English is more useful as a lingua franca; the usefulness of Hindi as a lingua franca is regionally limited (Spolsky 1978: 42 cited in Hohenthal , 2003)5. The small segment of the English speaking population controls domains that have professional prestige (Kachru 1986a: 8 cited in Hohenthal , 2003)). It is this small segment of Indian population that hea ds Indias economic, industrial, professional, political, and social progress. Most interactions in the above spheres of life take place in English. In the linguistically plural settings of India, English often acts as the link -language among people of different dialect. For many educated Indians English is virtually the first language. Thus in the present context English is playing a vital role in bringing together people from different regional languages for a closer exchange of social, educational and administrative network of India . It provides a linguistic tool for the administrative cohesiveness of a country (Kachru 1986a: 8). English is used in both public and personal domains and its functions extend far beyond those normally associated with an outside language, including the instrumental, the regulative, the interpersonal and the innovative, self-expressive function (Hohenthal citing Kachru 1986a: 37, 2003))6. As pointed out before, the role of English is not replacive: it overlaps with local languages in certain domains (Kandiah citing Sridhar, 1985;Shridhar and Shridhar, 1986; 1991: 273)7. English language in Indian Education System English is taught as a second language at every stage of education in all states of India and has been accepted as the main medium of instruction in higher education. English is also the state language of two states in eastern India, Meghalaya and Nagaland. In India, English has become an integral part of the curriculum almost at all levels of education. However there are various social, political and cultural factors that affect the position of English in different boards, universities and other institutions. Even the curriculum offered and evaluation tools employed are very diverse across the country. The model of English offered to the learners lacks uniformity and it is this question that continues to challenge the policy makers and education planners. While most States accord English the position of second language, some others treat is as the third language; the regional language and the national language getting precedence. as in other linguistically and culturally pluralistic societies, the position of English is determined by various political, cultural and social considerations. Kachru (1986b:20 cited in Hohenthal , 2003)8 sees primarily three questions which continue to be discussed. The first question concerns the position of English in early and in higher education. The second question is concerned with the roles of the regional language, Hindi and English. The third question deals with the model of English presented to Indian learners, and how that presentation can be made uniformly and effectively. The Government of India has primarily been concerned with the first two questions, which are directly related to language planning at both the national and state levels. There are, as yet, no acceptable answers to any of these questions (Kachru 1986b:20 cited in Hohenthal , 2003).9 1.2 Language Teaching Context at Amravati University Established on 1st May, 1983, this University geographically covers the western Vidarbha belt (i.e., five districts Amravati, Akola, Yavatmal, Buldhana and Washim) of Maharashtra State. The University, in its small span of two and a half decades, has contributed in many ways for economic, social and cultural upliftment of the society by offering quality education. The Motto of this University is Education for Salvation of Soul The University is recognised under Section 12(B) of UGC   Act. The University is also an associate member of Association of Commonwealth Universities, London (U.K.) The University has 10 faculties which includes Arts, Commerce, Sciences, Medicine, Ayurved, Education, Social Science, Law, Home Science, Engineering Technology. The University has facilities to offer post-graduate advanced education in Computer, Biotechnology, Business Management, Law degree courses in Chemical-Technology. SGB,Amravati University University has been one of the foundation universities undergoing expansion and developments in the recent years. Although the University does not have an English Department to date, English courses are offered both at undergraduate and postgraduate levels in colleges affiliated to the University. Evaluation tools used in order to assess the students performance are generally written exams stated to cover the course objectives moderately rather than fully. That is because listening and speaking skills are not evaluated although practiced during the classes. The exam is generally conducted once, at the end of the academic session. The nature of the written examination paper is largely theoretical. Thus, the results of this study will be an aid to the Curriculum Development Unit of English Board of Studiesof Amravati University (SGBAU)in deciding on the needs of the students and improving the already existing program to better meet the needs of those students. 1.3 Purpose of the Study? English has penetrated all functions and all sections of society. It is a universally accepted tool for communication. It is no longer restricted to the English or Americans as a means for communication. Even within India, with its diversity of languages, English has emerged as the accepted language of communication cross culturally. It has even overtaken Hindi, which is officially the national language, as far communication among people of different native languages is concerned. Although, from time to time, various political lobbies have raised the issue of prohibiting the use of English language, however, they have so far been unsuccessful. This is primarily the result of the accommodating quality of English . Moreover, most of the world communicates in English and if India has to be a part of the Global scenario, English language can be a major bridge. Looking at English language courses in sub metroplises, the fact that glaringly stands out is that little has been done to understand the special learning needs of students here and even lesser attention has been paid to prepare them to function effectively in their workplaces and academic environment. Students hailing from townships and rural areas suffer from geographic as well as cultural disadvantages. Their distance from the metros does not bring the exposure and environment which is naturally a part of the cosmopolitan work culture. Culturally as well, most students belong to families where native language is the means of communication and even in academic institutions the medium of instruction is primarily the local dialect. The prime purpose of this study was to understand the special needs of students who belong to non-metropolitan areas and then attempt to suggest how they can be optimally trained to perform academic and professional functions efficiently. Each of the skills which may be required, reading, writing, listening and speaking may be of different value in terms of their use in a specific field. This study has been able to assess the students only in reading, writing, grammar and vocabulary. Due to a large and scattered sample, the researcher was constrained not to test the listening and speaking skills of the respondents. This study aims at collecting data about the ESP needs of undergraduate students in 2008-2009 Academic Year. By comparing the results of students in each skill and the desired competence level of the items, this study, also aims at examining whether or not there is a need for improvement in those skills. Rodgers (1969 as cited in Hutchinson and Waters,1987) in Nese Ekici,2003 expresses that developments in educational psychology has contributed to the rise of ESP by emphasising the central importance of the learners and their attitudes to learning. Learners have different needs and interests, which has an important influence on their motivation to learn and therefore on the effectiveness of their learning. To get an idea about students English language skills and to see whether there was any discrepancy between their actual language skills and desired skills constituted an important dimension of the study. The foci of this study were both the target needs and learning needs for the English curriculum which is implemented during the undergraduate program. This needs assessment study will be useful in improving the already existing curriculum or designing a new needs-based curriculum and choosing more appropriate curricular elements for the undergraduate students at Amravati University Necessity for syllabus development A planned approach to the teaching-learning process can go a long way it making a course effective and relevant. However, as it is seen as something very complicated , many a times the content of the text books available for the course take the place of the syllabus. There are very strong grounds to support the need for a systematic syllabus development process, the most important of them are: First, right from the onset of the course the teacher understands the ultimate objective of the course as a result of the planned process. This gives an opportunity to the teacher to interrelate and integrate all the elements. This in turn ensures better chances for the syllabus meeting its learning objectives. Secondly, a planned approach enables better selection of teaching materials and aids. The class delivery is better planned and oriented towards the end result. Finally, this syllabus development process leads to improvement of language education. The teacher plans, structures, selects, organises the teaching content in accordance with the learning objectives. Both the learner and the teacher are well aware of the outcome desired and both work in coordination to achieve the common goal. The syllabus theory has not found wide application in ELT practice yet and has often been ignored by applied linguists. However, the application of this theory could be very beneficial for the whole ELT process improvement. This research is an attempt to bring in the application of syllabus development process for SGBAUs language courses.

Saturday, July 20, 2019

The Failure of the First and Second Reconstruction :: American History

The Failure of the First and Second Reconstruction The First and Second Reconstructions held out the great promise of rectifying racial injustices in America. The First Reconstruction, emerging out of the chaos of the Civil War had as its goals equality for Blacks in voting, politics, and use of public facilities. The Second Reconstruction emerging out of the booming economy of the 1950's, had as its goals, integration, the end of Jim Crow and the more amorphous goal of making America a biracial democracy where, "the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave holders will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood." Even though both movements, were borne of high hopes they failed in bringing about their goals. Born in hope, they died in despair, as both movements saw many of their gains washed away. I propose to examine why they failed in realizing their goals. My thesis is that failure to incorporate economic justice for Blacks in both movements led to the failure of the First and Second Reconstruction. The First Reconstruction came after the Civil War and lasted till 1877. The political, social, and economic conditions after the Civil War defined the goals of the First Reconstruction. At this time the Congress was divided politically on issues that grew out of the Civil War: Black equality, rebuilding the South, readmitting Southern states to Union, and deciding who would control government.1 Socially, the South was in chaos. Newly emancipated slaves wandered the South after having left their former masters, and the White population was spiritually devastated, uneasy about what lay ahead. Economically, the South was also devastated: plantations lay ruined, railroads torn up, the system of slave labor in shambles, and cities burnt down. The economic condition of ex-slaves after the Civil War was just as uncertain; many had left former masters and roamed thehighways.2 Amid the post Civil War chaos, various political groups were scrambling to further their agendas. First, Southern Democrats, a party comprised of leaders of the confederacy and other wealthy Southern whites, sought to end what they perceived as Northern domination of the South. They also sought to institute Black Codes, by limiting the rights of Blacks to move, vote, travel, and change jobs,3 which like slavery, would provide an adequate and cheap labor supply for plantations. Second, Moderate Republicans wanted to pursue a policy of reconciliation between North and South, but at the same time ensure slavery was abolished.

Friday, July 19, 2019

Introduction to Financial Mathematics :: essays research papers

Introduction to Financial Mathematics Table of Contents 1. Finite Probability Spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2. Elements of Continuous Probability Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 3. Differential Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Lecture Notes — MAP 5601 map5601LecNotes.tex i 8/27/2003 1. Finite Probability Spaces The toss of a coin or the roll of a die results in a finite number of possible outcomes. We represent these outcomes by a set of outcomes called a sample space. For a coin we might denote this sample space by {H, T} and for the die {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}. More generally any convenient symbols may be used to represent outcomes. Along with the sample space we also specify a probability function, or measure, of the likelihood of each outcome. If the coin is a fair coin, then heads and tails are equally likely. If we denote the probability measure by P, then we write P(H) = P(T) = 1 2 . Similarly, if each face of the die is equally likely we may write P(1) = P(2) = P(3) = P(4) = P(5) = P(6) = 1 6 . Defninition 1.1. A finite probability space is a pair ( , P) where is the sample space set and P is a probability measure: If = {!1, !2, . . . , !n}, then (i) 0 < P(!i)  1 for all i = 1, . . . , n (ii) n Pi=1 P(!i) = 1. In general, given a set of A, we denote the power set of A by P(A). By definition this is the set of all subsets of A. For example, if A = {1, 2}, then P(A) = {;, {1}, {2}, {1, 2}}.

How Shakespeare Has Changed My Life :: essays research papers

How Shakespeare Has Changed My Life Learning about Shakespeare was fun for me and I learned some new things. Some of the things that we talked about in class and that we read in Romeo and Juliet changed my thinking on other topics and gave me a different point of view. Shakespeare influenced my life because he showed that just because you see someone and think that they are the love of your life doesn?t mean you are truly in love with them, I never knew how much of our language came from William Shakespeare and how complicated Elizabethan language can be considering all the rules about how to pronounce words and where the accent goes on words. I feel that Shakespeare has influenced my thinking on love verses infatuation greatly. I can?t count how many times someone in my school has ?gone out? with someone else and then broken up with them in the next few days. When I read Romeo and Juliet, Romeo was in love with a girl named Rosaline in the beginning and was moping around because his supposed one true love in the world didn?t love him back. Then a few scenes later he was entranced by Juliet at the Capulet party. His change of heart happened so quickly you can tell that he probably isn?t really in love with her. That kind of thing still occurs today with young boys and girls constantly changing their minds about who they like and who they are dating. Truthfully, Romeo and Juliet are too young to know what love really is, they are only 13 and 14 years old! I think that Shakespeare has shown that if two people really believe that they are in love, even if they are not they will go to great lengths to be together, if it means lying to parents or hurting other people around them. Reading Shakespeare?s Romeo and Juliet made me think very deeply about love and what it means to be in love. When I was very young I always thought that people fell in love the moment they saw each other. I thought it was love at first sight for everybody and that people stayed in love forever, of course later on I understood that wasn?t always the case. Love takes time and you can?t rush into it or take it to fast. Sometimes people that end up getting married were good friends before they started a relationship and that paid off in the long run because they loved each other for their personality and who they are and not what they look like.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Globalization in the hospitality industry Essay

1: Educating workers around the world: Due to globalization, managers and employees of hospitality industry are able to learn about the different cultures, people, religions and other different prospects of life. Globalization also helps them to understand what importance of humanity is. Racism is still a part of some people but due to globalization it is getting hidden. 2: Multilingual services: Due to globalization more and more people from different parts of the world are traveling around the world. Hotels got benefit by these modernization but to maintain this traveling many hotels hire people who know different languages so that their customers feel comfortable and safe. 3: More knowledge about different cultures: So,e years back, people are not use to travel internationally and due to this many people were not aware of different cultures and traditions around the world but now people do travel and this increases the knowledge of people to understand about various cultures For example: When In India, I see tourist coming from Africa and they wear their traditional clothes and speak different language. This way I understand their culture and their heritage. 4: Increasing knowledge about different variety of foods: Due to this vast trend of globalization, more and more restaurants and hotels have different variety of food because you never know which people are coming from which part of the world. Everybody love food and when they see their own food somewhere they feel so relaxed. For example: Chinese tourist travels all around the world and so all big cities have â€Å"China Town†. These things attract Chinese people go and visit these places which are far from China but yet very similar Chinese tradition. 5: Increase in trade agreements: Globalization increase trade agreements between two countries as It is good for the economy of both countries as well as for the benefit of people who wants to understand other country’s culture and heritage, For example: Canada and China have very strong trade relations as China is the second largest trading partner. These relations are maintained because of this increasing multiculturalism. 6: Increase in equality among people and language and cultural barriers reduced: When people travel and work in different parts of world, this reduce language and cultural barriers and increase equality among people as they all feel comfortable with working with different people. This is one the major advantage of globalization because non equality and racism are biggest enemy of humanity. Now people have to be more knowledgeable to take any actions against any culture or race

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Cigarette Tax

Section 1 Cig bette impose hike sparks panic buying By Ashley Hall Updated Thu Apr 29, 2010 What is the master(prenominal) issue presented in the media herald? Discuss what has actually happened In the year of 2010, the Federal Government elevated(a) tax revenuees on cig atomic number 18ttes by an supererogatory 25 per cent, gisting in an annex worth of $2. 16 to every pack of 30 cig bettes. A proclamation stated by flush Minister Kevin Rudd on the crackdown on Internet advertising of prats was menti aced. Mr. Rudd excessively affirmed the loose medication go out spend $27. one million million on an anti- smoke campaign (Hall, 2010) This media physical composition outlines the publics impulsive buying of cig atomic number 18ttes upon the governments mention of the very rapid sum up in taxes, thus resulting in an upward(a) cast up in expenditure. It mentions the dis mays retailers and tobacconists confront cod to the tax hike. Further to a greater extent, ment ioning the concerns of philanthropists and other individuals. foreground the reason for the issue being raise This issue was one that arose quite diddle after its resolve, as it touched the acres in its majority in m whatever ways.The justification behind this issue was the governments insufficiency of planning. The vent of the tax hike occurred only several hours onward its prospected start of mid shadow that night, which at last left teensy or possibly even no time to adjust and prepargon for the ensuant cost change magnitude. (Hall, 2010) Outline what viable upholds this mixture could arrest The unexpected castrate pose umpteen impacts on an abundant firmament of the population. The change impact the consumers (smokers), the suppliers/producers, retailers/tobacconists, charity workers and the government.The abrupt publication of the price increase would locomote to a majority of smokers buy large amounts of cigargonttes than usual, in an attempt to pu rchase the harvest-festival at a cheaper price quite than at its increase price. The retailers/tobacconists face the prospects of high conducts and physical impossibilities much(prenominal) as inadequacy of stock and time to prepare. Although on the reprobate as stated by the executive director of Quit Victoria 100,000 stack entrust quit smoking as the result of the price increase and 250,000 children go out not take up the clothe. (Hall, 2010)From another viewpoint, the rapid increase in tax had an immediate negative impact on the number of mint larnk assistance. This is solely the case, as a wide held proportion of smokers come from impoverished-income throngs, In fact, people from low-income groups are 13 times to a greater extent likely to quit smoking in the face of a prime increase than those from higher(prenominal) income groups. (Hall, 2010) Who are the disclosestone stakeh previous(a)s that are impacted by the issue outline in the tarradiddle? The key gr oups that may be impacted by the issues raised(a) in this report are in the long run the key stakeholders i. e. he customers, suppliers, regulators and opponents. The customers (smokers) are confront with the change magnitude price on packets of cigarettes. Which yieldually puts an excise outcome on consumers income. The suppliers were faced with a rapid increase in indigence in the hours forward the implementation of the tax increase, and perpetual conduct between the power points after the tax. This is referable to the look that smokers are not get outing to go cold turkey over night simply due to an increase of $2. 16, alone last the possible immediate even up in number of packets bought/sold in the event prior to the tax increase.Suppliers are also faced with the concern of consumers opting for fill in scoops (This means a unplayfuls beseech is increased when the price of another good is increased) for physical exercise replacing cigarettes with chewing gu m (even considering that cigarettes are inelastic). (McTaggart, 2010) Regulators, which in this case are the Government, are faced with ageless scrutiny regarding their decisions and lack of planning. However, this tax hike increased an extra $5 billion over quaternion years, which the Government would put towards its health and hospitals renovation (Hall, 2010). So evidently, back into the preservation.An increase in people seeking assistance will also place possible strains on charity workers, as people will continue to spend money on cigarettes instead than necessities. Competitors are also faced with a possible increase in charter, as the price of one good is increased, the lead of the easement good is increased (McTaggart, 2010). Students and groups of people from low socio economical berth will be directly touch on the greatest. For those who come from high-income classes, their wages are primarily increasing as the 25 per-cent emergence is implemented, which ultim ately does not easily venture their income as a whole.However, students and people from low socioeconomic status groups are cock-a-hoop up necessities of life to aliment their smoking addictions. What economic theories can be permeate from this media report? Opportunity comprise graphical record 1 The theory of Opportunity cost ( chart 1) the amount of other wares that essential be sacrificed to obtain an extra unit of any product. The probability cost refers to the benefit forgone from the best alternative use of resources. (McTaggart, 2010) As the economy moves from point B towards point C, it must give up successively bigger amounts of good B to obtain the aforementioned(prenominal) equal increment in good C (Layton, 2009).In relation to cigarette tax, people from lower income groups are giving up the necessities in order to feed their smoking addiction. Demand, Supply and Elasticity graphical record 2 The take on for cigarettes increased during the occlusion of the governments announcement and until midnight when the price increase was implemented i. e. a change in consumers expectations well-nigh prospective prices brings forward an increase in consumption. (McTaggart, 2010) Graph 3 Change in demand is where the demand has shifted to the left hand side. jump in price will see a greater quantity supplied (quantity will rise), shift in supply curve. McTaggart, 2010), (Layton, 2009). From midnight the correspondence shifted to the left side along the demand curve by the price increase. As the result, as it was mentioned above, the quantities demanded drop-offd, due to the tax increase. payoff in consumer and producer paying the burden of the tax increase. (McTaggart, 2010) Section 2 orchard apple tree Shares hit as iPhone gross sales come back Short toss out News Oct 19, 2011 What is the main issue presented in the media report? orchard apple tree, one of the mavining technological companies in the beingness has record revenues unchara cteristically short of expectations. protect street analysts expected iPhone sales during their one-quarter quarter earnings to be 20 million sales, with a short walk out of 17 million sold. With general revenues recorded at $28. 3 billion, really short of expectations (Sky News, 2011). orchard apple tree untried question executive Tim Cook does not take care concerned about the recorded short fall of the gild since the brief of Co-founder Steve Jobs. save losses in revenue for orchard apple tree fourth quarter could be meaningfully the result of many factors (Sky News, 2011). The main modify factor, being the short after release of the iPhone 4s.Due to the release of the iPhone 4s, consumers were withholding from purchasing older models of the iPhone, with the thought I would rather wait a litter longer to purchase a freshly and updated adaptation. Ultimately the thought of consumers posses greater chance for apple sales in the prox but resulted in revenue fal l short in their fourth quarter. The recorded revenue had a negative impact on the family. With the actual versus predicted sales of the iPhone fall short, apple bundled dropped 5% upon the announcement (Sky News, 2011).A drop in parcel price negatively affected the ships company, specially since a drop in partake price has now only occurred since the passing of co-founder Steve Jobs. A drop in share price could result in consumers disbelieving whether they should continue to purchase orchard apple tree products, or if the drop in share price is a polaritying factor that at that place is a higher demand for substitute goods. This could be the case as many other leading technological companies are constantly trying to innovate new and improve models of phones, laptops and tabloids to keep up with apples constant improvements.For example Samsung release of their new tablet caused large amounts of disputes between themselves and Apple, as Apple saw a large opportunity for threat to sales of their iPad. Although this is the case, the new iPhone 4s has flick rocketing sales of four million in its first three days on the market. As new chief executive Tim Cook said customer response to iPhone 4s has been fantastic, we digest momentum going into the vacation season, and we remain really enthusiastic about our product pipeline. (Sky News, 2011). Who are the key stakeholders that are impacted by the issue adumbrate in the report?The key groups that may be impacted by the issues raised in this report are ultimately the key stakeholders i. e. the customers, suppliers, shareholders and competitors. The customers are ultimately those who predict they continuing success of the company, without customer sales Apple would not exist. The hit of Apple shares could negatively impact consumer sales. A pass up in the share price could signal a train of though in consumers mind that possibly there is a need for greater innovative or the threat of higher competito rs in regards to Apple products.If consumers are being told that a company is recording predicted short falls in their expected revenue consumer might be apposed to their products, resulting in customers opting for substitute goods. (McTaggart, 2010) The suppliers in this report are in fact Apple and all other retailers that stock Apple products. The short fall of iPhone sales resulted in a drop-off in revenue. Which ultimately lead to a decrease in the price of Apple shares. A decrease in share price could lead to a resist in possible sales, which results in a supplier surplus.Suppliers get hold of a greater number of products to cover in relating to consumers who are lodge ined in buying their product (McTaggart, 2010). In the event of the release of the iPhone 4s, suppliers are faced with higher consumer demand, which could result in a dearth of iPhone 4s in relation to consumer demands. Apples brand let on and reputation is a very master(prenominal) asset to the company, with this issue being raised, it could have an impact on one of their largest assets. Shareholders, are those individuals or companies who have financially invested an interest in Apple, a decrease in share price negatively impacts shareholders. gloaming in the share price by 5% results in a decrease in the value of shareholders wealth. The final group that is impacted by issues of a capitulation in Apples share price is competitors. This could have a positive impact to competitors. prejudicious public announcement over such a large and dominant company could result in a substantial amount of consumers opting to purchase products competitors offer, simply due to the decisions of other individuals. A consistent course in the public shows, that if a product is negatively represented in more than one way consumers will be very reluctant to purchase that product.Resulting in a positive advantage for competitors products. The group that would be impacted the most would be the supplier s. They are the key foundation of the company, without continued success the company could face greater hardships and decline in sales leading to a decline in revenue and share price as which occurred in the month of October 2011. What economic theories can be drawn from this media report? Supply and Demand Graph 1 Demand curve during period of Apple reporting shortfall of sales and lessen revenue in recording during their fourth quarter.The graph above is a standard of changes in demand. Apple change in demand during this period is caused by consumer expectations, tastes and preferences. Where the concisely to be released iPhone 4s resulted in the decrease of occurrent iPhone sales. (McTaggart, 2010), (Layton, 2009). Graph 2 The Above graph is a representation of the supply and demand curve during the first release of the iPhone 4s. The alter curve remains constant (from period before and after the release of the iPhone 4s). Where significant changes occurred in relationship t o the demand curve.The increase in demand which resulted in a right ward shift of the demand curve was a direct result of taste or preferences of consumers a key determinant in the changes in demand (Layton, 2009). This was the case as consumers withheld from purchasing older models of the iPhone with anticipation of purchasing the newer and improved translation of the iPhone (iPhone 4s). This resulted in Apple experiencing greater quantities demanded as stated in the article iPhone 4s has huckster rocketing sales of four million in its first three days on the market. Change in demand results in change in new equilibrium (Sky News, 2011). ReferencesMcTaggart, D. , Findlay, C. , and Parkin, M. (2010), political economy, Sixth Edition, Addison-Wesley, Sydney Lecture Slides, Blackboard, University of Technology, Sydney, Insearch (2011), political economy for argumentation Unknown. 2011, Apple shares hit as iPhone sales fall Short, Sky News, YAHOO, viewed 4 November 2011, http//news. yahoo. com/apple-earnings-hit-drop-iphone-sales-220800212. html Layton, A. , T. Robinson and I. Tucker (2009), Economics for Today, Cengage Learning Australia, Australia South Melbourne. Faculty of Business (2010), Guide to Writing Assignments (3rd ed. ), Faculty of Business, University of Technology, Sydney