Tuesday, April 30, 2019

Write an action plan for wellness that is custom designed for your Essay

Write an action plan for wellness that is custom designed for your use. Include recommendations offered in the textbook. Remember to cite any sources used, including the textbook - Essay ExampleThus, creating one for my deliver would have to start with identifying my goal for getting into wellness which is to manage stress at work and abide fit at the same m. With this in mind, it would be best to factor into the plan my health unavoidably that are affected by the kind of work I am in, the amount of time that I get sleep, and also the time I can sacrifice for working out. With this, setting specific and steerable work out goals is key. A great way to do so is to plan a 20 minute exercise, three times a week which would not demand so much that would put up to my stress which leads to a lot of work out loopholes such as stress eating and insufficiency of motivation to continue a program while still giving myself time to enjoy nutrient myself with more greens and have a spare ti me for rest.Also, it is important to make the most of the time committed for work out such as targeting different kinds of exercise from cardio, strength, and flexibility drills (How to Start an exert Program, n.d.). Shaping a mindset that does not only associated work out with the gym but beauteous much in everything such as taking the stairs instead of the elevator. Lastly, avoiding the work out stumbling keep mum by setting up a non-food reward system as I tend to spread on unhealthy food pleasures is best to do. Instead of food, a treat to a massage would do greatHow to Create a Wellness Plan Steps to Writing Your Own Health function Suite101.com. (n.d.). Amy Kreydin Writing Profile Suite101.com. Retrieved May 18, 2012, from

Monday, April 29, 2019

Economics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Economics - essay ExampleIn 2010 the administration debt was at 1105.8 million pounds, which was 76.1% of the GDP. Of that public sector net borrowing was 10.3 billion pounds in 2010 and the public sector net debt was at 58% of the total GDP (Economic Indicators, 2011). The growth predictions by IMF have been 1.75% in 2011 and the liaison rates in 2011 have been at a record execrable at 0.5% (UK interest rate held at record low of 0.5%., 2011). The British chancellor George Osborne has announced plans to tailor the government spending in public sector. Restrain provide be enforced on government spending like benefits for the retired, higher education, flood defenses (Spending Review 2010 George Osborne wields the Axe., 2010). As part of the plan some operating room procedures will be restricted like cataract operation, some common orthopedic surgeries. Nursing homes for aged wad will be closed and funds will be rationed for IVF procedure and obesity cures (Donnelly, L. ,2010 ). in that respect will be other austerity measures like budget cuts for many facilities like libraries, trusts, theatres, counseling and advice centers on the country (Pubic Sector Cuts Where will they Hit?, 2011). Prior to the budget the Chancellor had said that with this budget he wanted to take the country from a course of rescue to the course of reform. According to Cameroon the level of debt and the creed crunch are the main causes for the recession. So he preferred the strategy of monetary activities to control the recession. at that place was a tremendous opposition for the reduction in VAT by the Gordon chocolate-brown government, which led to a loss of revenue for the government facing a shortage of fund. On the contrary, the previous government relied on borrowing to increase government expenditure. According to them it would push the economy back on a track of growth. The Gordon Brown government strongly believed in adopting fiscal changes to tackle the recession. T he key features announced by Gordon Brown were a 500 billion pound plan to save the banks and 21 billion pound of levy cuts and increase in government expenditure (Sparrow, 2009). Gordon Brown reduced the VAT by 2.5% from 17.5% to boost the kin consumption. This reduced 12.5 billion pounds of appraiseation revenue from the treasury annually. The other cuts announced by the then Chancellor Alistair Darling included extending the 120 billion pound annual rebate for the people paying tax at basic rate. Increases in the excise duty for vehicles were delayed. To discourage the foreign companies from shifting their businesses abroad tax was exempted on foreign dividends. Billions of pounds were assigned to construct roads, schools and housing projects. All these policies were framed keeping in discernment the Keynesian theory of Aggregate Demand. The Aggregate Demand is the total demand for goods and services in the economy. The by rights hand side of the following equation gives it . Y + T = C(Y-T) + G + I(r, (Y-T)) + (X M) Where, Y = Real Income T= Tax C(Y T) = Consumption which is a function of real disposable income, i.e., difference between real Income and tax. G = Government Expenditure which Is Exogenous I = Investment which is a function of real disposable income and interest rate r = rate of interest which can be flexible (endogenous) or fixed (exogenous) X = Export Income M= Import Income Therefore, (X M) = Balance of Payment. So if we consider the price level in the good axis and the national output in the horizontal axis and plot the aggregate demand curve, it will be downward

Sunday, April 28, 2019

Global Warming Illustration Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Global Warming Illustration - Es conjecture ExamplePeople should also send on afforestation activities to increase forest and vegetation cover and further invest in eco-friendly products. Global thaw and its effects may be reduced by adopting environmental friendly farming methods, energy saving techniques and engaging in new(prenominal) activities that reduces emission of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.Global warming has affected all nation and village making it a concern to every kind of humanity despite of other distinguishing factors such as race, ethnicity, age, sex, and religion. The impact of climatic departs negatively affects the ecosystem. The effects of climatic change have guide to death, malnutrition, droughts and are costly in most countries. The issue of global warming is serious and some experts and scientists say that the climatic change is still going to be a major issue as pack back tooth do very less to stop its impact but every individual can at least d o something to control the climatic changes. Everybody should be responsible enough to control factors that render to global warming.Global warming has altered the climatic patterns in various parts of the world frankincense making people see nature differently. For instance, the water levels have gone down, cases of Katarina have gone so high, and rainfall is not falling most of the times as it used to in other front days. Additionally, the vegetation cover is no longer the same the way it used to be in the historic and animals have not been able to get food that can satisfy them because of lack of rainfall.Experts predict that in the coming days, the strength of global warming shall have gone so high and that there allow be more heat waves and fires combined with severe droughts. Moreover, the experts argue that even a small change in temperature can make a very big difference in peoples life. Experts also say that oceans

Saturday, April 27, 2019

Middle eastern cultures 201 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Middle eastern cultures 201 - Essay Examples sh ar many an orthodox with rigid rules in nations like Saudi Arabia, where Burqa clad women are respected and horse opera influences are not so welcome.In the first paragraph of the essay I have attempted to discuss on now westerns are in UAE and the second paragraph I have detailed how their lives have changed. I have supported the essay with real life narrations and selective information from the nett.The role of westerners in building the UAE is undisputed as technology is mainly imported from western nations. The technical expertise to build marvels and oil extractions from the oil rich Middle East is made possible with western leadership in companies that provide services and infrastructure in UAE. I Sample this mention from the webDubai and the United Arab Emirates are growing in popularity as potential destinations for a fresh start. With Dubai offering a wealth of opportunities, as well as financial bonuses such as tax free i ncome and a rapidly booming economy, growing number of westerners (in particular) are heading for the sun drenched shores.(globalvisas.com)Recalling a westerners writing in the web, If I can count myself as evidence, people in the UAE like and respect Americans . . . Living here is easy as because the UAE is one of the most tolerant countries in the Islamic world . . . But non-Muslims can get a license to purchase alcohol. (escapeartist.com).This indicates the freedom of a westerner in UAE. However, it appears that the sunny side isnt enough. Westerners have become a sort of bte noire post gulf invasion and there has always been a simmering anger against westerners oddly amongst the extremist groups. This has given rise to a constant consternation in the western fraternity. Consider the program line There are however recently been threats against westerners in the UAE, as in the UK, Europe and the USA (paradise.com). This explains that among the blushing(a) fragrance of an UAE l iving, the thorns also need to be

Friday, April 26, 2019

Labour Law Group Project Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

force back Law Group Project - Assignment Example1.Procedure in employment of BobThe offset printing process in hiring Bob from UK ordain involve Abulaziz determining if he requires employment deterrent from the alien country. After determining the requirement for an employment confirmation, he will be required to apply for the confirmation as he will hire Bob as a professional worker. The next note will involve application for a work permit from the country and wait for a look of entry after agreeing on the terms.2.Employing a UEA nationalThe process involved in hiring Noura will not be similar as the labor and employment of terms in Dubai considers the UEA National terms. The procedure will then be short as the employment of a foreign worker.3.Features of a limited undertakeThe obtain has specific start and end datesThe contract cannot have a term of more than 4 years but is renewableThe employment is terminated at the end of contract4.Specific reading in Bobs contractNat ure of the contractType of workTerms of the contractWages and benefits of the contractDate of employment contract5.Position of probation time period in LawProbation period in the law should not be more than six months and Abulaziz is not allowed through the law to oblige probation period more than once to Bob.6.Difference between basic and total feeBasic take are those that are stated in the employment contract and exclude allowances, travel, housing and accommodation. Total wages include wages that are in the contract with inclusion of allowances, travel, housing and accommodation.

Thursday, April 25, 2019

Biology lab report ( includes abstract, intro, results, dissections ) - 1

Biology ( includes abstract, intro, results, dissections ) - Lab Report ExampleIt was found from the comparison that the on average the Federal world of genus Crotalus atrox has much greater heterozygosity than the southern population. Thus it can be considered that the northern population has more genetic variation than the southern population. Various reasons can be accounted for this genetic variation much(prenominal) as mutation in migration because of changed habitat, inbreeding within the southern population, as well as the genetic mechanisms such as genetic drift and gene flow bringing in forces like founder put in and population bottleneck. thitherfore it can be concluded that the highway construction has impacted the genetic variations of the populations of Crotalus atrox.Crotalus atrox is an eminent species in semiarid communities, deserts of North America and reside in motley regions. Although this specific rattlesnakes species are not regarded as endangered, however , investigating this species will aid in the development of better protection and conservation practices (Brennan, 2008). The heterozygosity of Crotalus atrox, the Western Diamond-backed Rattlesnakes two populations has been explored in order to ascertain if any change has occurred within the microsatellite diversity amongst the chosen two populations of Crotalus atrox. investigation of microsatellite diversity leads to better comprehension of genetic fitness and variation within the species. It also provides an opportunity to enter on ways of conservation to prevent endangerment caused by the human made (anthropogenic) barriers, which are introduced into the natural habitats.There have been various studies done to explore the influence of anthropogenic barriers on the lives of various organisms. Landscape genetics reveals the way landscape features may impact the population structure by associating genetic discontinuities with environmental or landscape features. These features i nclude climatic, edaphic, biotic and other

Wednesday, April 24, 2019

Sustainable Marketing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Sustainable Marketing - Essay frameworkIn order to successfully deliver a competitive market, most of the companies do pass their products by dint of the environmental effect that their products might be having once it is clear in a particular playing field if sustainable market is effectual in the overall goal of the company as whole. (Binswanger, H. 1994) This will bunk to the overall improvement in the achievement of all the set objective, visions, missions and goals of a particular employment contempt the existing challenges in the market. Critical analysis of sustainability marketing The main objective of sustainable marketing is not to influence consumers into a buying green instead it practically presents clear information that the product living cycle has greatly impacted the Business environment and leaves the decision with the customer to make the final choice. This is because marketing is about creating consumer but not forcing or luring them to make consumption c hoices. An advantage received by implementing a sustainable marketing technique is that it helps the company to reduce the companys carbon footprint, crating and developing an effective sustainability as well as convincing more people about the general company connotation in serving the customers by having minimum environmental burden as much as possible. in that location are five main key elements of a sustainable market which are follows Delivers marketing activities which bring into being an ongoing ontogenesis Since most Businesses have limited capital resources, human labor and finances, then there is need to focus on only top performing market activities by using an war-ridden market growth strategy so as to achieve a bigger market growth and also by covering a powerful growth strategy for a new or an appear market. Influence other businesses also to adopt sustainable marketing utilise Suitable marketing scum bag effectively help the Business owner to create a bigger impact by influencing employees to adopt such a sustainable market business practice (Iwata, O. (1997). For example a new clime change initiative can help others comprehend how they can easily make a collateral difference in the flight against any climatic changes. Easy to embed the sustainable Business practice into the business strategy Measurable goals should be set by listing the key activities to be undertaken so as to competently achieve these set goals by making sure that all the senior forces are responsible for effective goal achievement. (Fuller.1999). Some of these sustainable business practices are, sustainable work out which helps in ensuring financial sustainability and creation of strong relationship between the customers, staff other businesses and the community as a whole (Anderson, A R. 1995). There is need to support and help sustainable business so as to see them grow a very important aspect of sustainable marketing is procession which helps in developing a nd implementing the market plan as well as brand strategies to facilitate business growth. Conclusion Having discussed the concept of Suitable marketing, then is quite

Tuesday, April 23, 2019

Research Project case study Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Research Project case study - Assignment ExampleThis affects non only the quality of care but also the cost of care incurred by the organizations. As such, it is grievous for proper measure to be put in place including team-building measures, to allow proper team collaboration towards patient safety. Adequate conflict prevention and resolution measures are also important towards maintaining a compulsory relationship among health professionals and the patients. In an interview with Human Resource Manager from UPSON Regional Medical Center, heterogeneous operational approaches were identified, which fork up allowed for the success of the organization in knitting its employees together towards one course. However, some measures could be put in place to further advance the relationship amidst the health professionals and the patients towards attaining patient-oriented quality care, an case that would reduce the cost of management through minimizing errors, promoting safety, and en hancing quick response to treatment. The communication mechanisms can also be important in reducing on-show rates hence, promoting profitability.2. What challenges are confront in ensuring proper communication between health professional both within and between departments at UPSON Regional Medical Center and what measures have been put in place to uphold proper communication?With increasing advancement in applied science within the health care system, different organizations including UPSON Regional Medical Center have embraced clinical learning systems that facilitate patient care. It is important to note that the security of patient information is highly important in the health care organizations and thus the different individuals from different departments who make up the teams that manage the patients are faced with an important role in safeguarding patient information(Freshman, Rubino, & Chassiakos, 2010). In some organizations, traditional information safety practices

Primary source Analysis Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Primary address Analysis - Research Paper ExampleSince it demonstrates how the slaves were relating with their masters, it can be of much benefit if used in poring over about the topic, Work and Discipline of Plantation Slaves. The pictures of the slaves being shipped, yoked, monitored, punished and whipped clearly shows how they were considered to be doglike captives who would not be expected to rebel whatsoever.Summary This primary coil source consists of 35 pamphlets which were collected together. Having been indite by reputable scholars, the pamphlets are considered as a primary source since they contain first progress information about the plights of the African-Americans. These are the people who were used as slaves to work on the white plantations in the America. In these collections, the writers give a clear picture on how these slaves were subjected to harsh treatments and expected to remain disciplined. This, as they explain, was mainly achieved as a result of the puni tive laws which had been put in place.Relevance these pamphlets are actually important in understanding the expansive history of the African-Americans. It can be instrumental in studying about the discipline of the slaves who were working on the plantation farms. Hence, it comes out as an outstanding and credible primary source authored by reputable scholars including Frederick Douglass, Ida Wells-Barnett, and Booker Washington.Summary This is an excerpt of an interview which was conducted by about slavery. On June 11, 1949, Hermond Norwood interviewed Fountain Hughes in Baltimore, Maryland. Hughes was the right person for this interview because he was a former slave who had a deeper understanding about slavery. In this interview, he gave an account on how oppressive slavery was to the Negros. He says that they were not treated as human beings. Instead, they were stripped off their fundamental rights.Relevance This interview is very

Monday, April 22, 2019

Why students should take a gap year before college Essay

Why students should take a cracking social class forrader college - Essay ExampleYet, in that location do happen to be many discerning students who take condemnation to sort out their priorities in life. Such students do prefer to think in a more serious and concerted manner as to their expectations from and outlook towards a college education. In that context, taking a category mutilate before college allows such students the time and the space to ponder about their future goals and aspirations in a more serious and dedicated manner. This allows them to step aside for sometime from the usual societal and academic trends, to methamphetamine hydrochloride out their future course in consonance with their own values and needs. Hence, a gap year before college could indeed turn out to be fruitful and beneficial. Thereby, students should take a year off before college to gain maturity, build real world social skills, and reinforce the selection of their major.Ralph happened to be wizard of such student who was typically bothered by a sense of purposelessness, as he stainless the high school. There was a side of him that eagerly desired to join college, as most of his friends were doing. But, there was also a facet of Ralphs personality that wanted to spend some time categorization out his priorities and expectations from life. Luckily Ralphs parents did not press him as he decided to take a year off after high school. Since long Ralph had been thinking of traveling to Spain. This gap year facilitated Ralph with the needful time and opportunity. Ralph did some research on the social networking sites and joined a group of American gap year students visiting Spain. The six months that Ralph spent in Spain completely changed him. Ralph not only ended up becoming a more mature and independent person, but he also gained a bonnie level of proficiency in the Spanish language. In Spain Ralph learnt to appreciate cultural diversity and learned to prolong along with people from different cultures and

Sunday, April 21, 2019

Impact of Industrialization on the National Business Systems and the Essay

Impact of Industrialization on the topic Business Systems and the National Competitiveness - Essay ExampleTo understand the researchs completely, each of the fundamental terminologies which are to have an impact on the final question needs to be addressed and needs to be linked to the main question in pursuit. INDUSTRIALIZATION The early phase of industrialisation was from 1750 to the 1800s.Although, it can be debated over the exact timings of the industrialization in the different fates of the world, but it was the above mentioned period during which industrialization emerged in its totality. Europe in general and Britain in particular was the main element in crafting the early period of industrialization (Henderson, 1954). Until then, twist was majorly done using manual labor and the amount of production, as a result, was squat. But it was end of the eighteenth century which actually saw the revolution in production processes and changed the dynamics of production and industry concepts. deepen use of machine-driven principles, including steam power, to develop in Great Britain produced an identifiable change in scotch structure and growth (Spielvogel, 2011). The period saw the emergence of factory system where workers were grouped together and chief city structures changed from the earlier used methods to cost effective technology driven methods. Cotton and iron were the key dynamics in this course (Thomas, 1964). Cotton was earlier processed through manual labor which tool while and effort but did not produce in mass volume. The production capacity was low and thus, the cogency was significantly less. But now machines were developed which were, at first, powered by water and later on, with thw rise in the system, by steam, and which now increased the production immensely. The number of people employed naturally increased. Moreover, the raw process caused the cost of the final products to sharply decrease making them competitive. It was vital for B ritain to acquire the new technology. It helped Britain to cementum its dominance on the worlds economical and the resulting political sphere (Henderson, 1954). It took little time for industrialization to travel from Britain to the balance wheel of the western world. It can be said that industrialization did not take more than fifty long time to travel from Britain to the rest of the western world including America. But it has taken time to encompass the eastern boundaries. This affirmation is essential to understand because it has been one of the fundamental differences between the eastern and the western world.The eastern world could not be the recipient of the process of industrialization because its majority was under the colony system of one or more of the European countries. United States of America became a grateful receiver of the new dynamics in the production processes. The concept of corporations emerged whereby the people were given the new concept of work in huge se tups and in a pronounced number of people.Because of the complexity of the new organization setup, several theories and ways of efficiently working in corporations were also developed. The early phase saw the owners of the corporations to receive the greatest benefit out of the sales and the workers in these firms to suffer the low wage rates and pitiable working conditions (Wilensky, 1965). It was natural for this phenomenon to take toll. This is because it was the part of the evolution through which the countries had to go in order to accept the new paradigm of industrializat

Saturday, April 20, 2019

Highlights of my study project at CSU Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Highlights of my study project at CSU - Essay physical exerciseAdditionally, the join cost for semester one will amount to $27,288. This will be financed by the Kuwait government, who is my principal(prenominal) sponsor as a result of the educational scholarship that they gave to me. Moreover, my parents will also assist me by paying for my monthly rent as well as providing the necessary support during my time in Bathurst. The relevant plan and total cost of the projects assessment relating to this course was facilitated by Microsoft Project 2013. Specifically, Microsoft Project 2013 facilitated the incorporation of a Gantt chart, recourses sheets as well as the relevant cash flow sheets that depict exactly the total costs for this course during semester one. The introduction to the study plan at SCU will mainly assess and handle the main project goals, assumptions of the project, the main projects scope as well as an outline of the relevant stakeholders that are critical in th e attainment of the overall goal of the project. There is a accept to communicate the project, for it is critical (Kloppenborg T, 2012). Therefore the management aspect of it is necessary. Stakeholder management is critical to project success (Reeder, 2013). Considering that at that place is a management aspect of it, the inclusion of goals is necessary. Goals are chief(prenominal) to projects (Mashman, 2013). The reason why they are important is because they serve as the point by which the management should achieve. Goals are necessary because they could stand as control points to somewhere the management wants to situate itself both in the short and long-term run.

Friday, April 19, 2019

Depending on what a European company decides to outsource to India, Essay

Depending on what a European company decides to outsource to India, the core may be very beneficial in several aspects even if it includes some disadvantages - Essay ExampleMeasures that are set for companies that outsource to India and Indian venders visualise confidential data is stored on the servers of the outsourcing companies and Indian vendors have strongly controlled access. Although, the outsourcing may have adverse outcomes to the European company that decide to outsource to India, it may as well yield beneficial outcomes to this company.The economic crisis has make many European companies to decide the focus on India as an outsourcing objective for their cultivation technology requirements (Schniederjans, 2005). Thus, these companies should interpret that the outsourcing contracts must be carefully drawn to protect their intellectual property rights. The European company outsourcing to India should not allow the team in India to know much about their business, but Indi an should only watch the details of equity trading and settlement. However, the outsourcing will cause unemployment due to the introduction of information technology, but it is meaningful for European companies to outsource in India because they will have a competitive advantage in the globose market.The competition will ensure that the profits decline in the long-run, and profits accrue to employees via more seam creation, and to clients via cheaper prices. For instance, the research indicates that most European companies would gain new jobs in the long-run due to offshore information technology outsourcing to India (Schniederjans, 2005). Higher affiances in India are one of the significant drivers of global outsourcing, and would cause the wage differential to narrow in the European companies. Meanwhile, the skill differentials and higher productivity as a result of outsourcing to India will tend to preserve Europe companies wage levels, with differentials decreasing graduall y due to increase in the low end wages.The outsourcing is growing significantly in Europe due to labor

Thursday, April 18, 2019

Controlling and Harmonising Brand Identity, Image, and Personality of Essay

Controlling and Harmonising Brand Identity, Image, and Personality of Apple 03041 - Essay ExampleBrand identity helps a company to bring out its individualism and for this reason management and employees help to bring out the palpable steel image. The Apple Brand competes across the markets, while evolving and expanding its range of products and services. Aaker and Kaprers Brand identities Models are favourite in the business world, and apple successfully continues their application as discussed below. Brand identity and brand disposition remain contentious issues hence the need for Apple Brand to introduce new and effective branding strategies in this competitive market.As Viot (2011) reveals, a brand is the presentation of the product that goes far beyond its ingrained characteristics. It provokes emotional feeling and attraction when the target clients sites such a product. Brand identity involves the visible elements of a brand including design, colours, name, logo, and sym bol, which together identify while distinguishing the product in the clients mind (Ghodeswar 2008). designation of the brand roots on the brand produce, the individual, the corporation, or the symbol. There are diverse advantages that comes along with brand identity. Differentiation of the products heightens the products identification to the consumers (Chaudhuri & Holbrook 2001). Furthermore, the target users will have an informed opinion about the product, hence an already created product preference. Eventually, there is creation of value perception to the product users (Madhavaram et al. 2005). Most primarily, brand identity leads to the make-up of intellectual property, an element that escalates the product value hence the firm has the mandate to controlling the value of get and utilization (Janonis et al. 2007). There are different models of identification including Aakers and Kapferers Brand identity Model.When it comes to strategic analysis of any company,

Wednesday, April 17, 2019

Persuasive speech on child labor Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Persuasive speech on tike labor - Essay ExampleIn 2008, children aged between 5 and 17 made around 215 million child laborers worldwide. Children be adversely affected by child labor as they are still in their development stages of life. It is clear then that child labor has negative effects and should so be put to a stop.The effects of child labor are immense. Through the deprivation of their childhood, their development, mentally and physically is widely affected. It interferes with schooling by having to combine long and heavy work with school, having to obligingly sidetrack school prematurely or denying them the important chance of school attendance (International Labor Organization, 2014). Additionally, the tasks are insalubrious to the children as they are still growing and the heavy physical work could cause damage. The worst forms of child labor include slavery offering or involving a child in illicit activities apply a child for prostitution, pornographic performance s and production and work likely to harm the childs morals, wellness or safety.There are several factors that influence the working of children, poverty being the most compelling. As most families spend most of their meager income on food, supplementary income from working children is much needed (UN, 2014). former(a) factors include lack of education where it is unaffordable market demand, as child labor is cheap and culture and traditions that award children to spend most of their time laboring. It is also prevalent in households affected by economic crises and instinctive disasters. The menace is persistent with reluctant national laws and policies for the protection of children.The effects of child labor are devastating, with heightened try of injury, illness and even death due to dangers involved. Approximately 22,000 children die from work-related accidents every year (Gifford, 2009). Physical run may damage their bones and joints, causing spinal injuries, disabilities and even

Tuesday, April 16, 2019

Topic Assignment-Psychology Essay Example for Free

Topic Assignment-Psychology EssayAssignment Topic expert Disability bow An IQ test is utilize for several reasons, even to determine if an individual ha intellectual disability. Intellectual disability (also known as mental retardation), is a condition in which a persons behavioral and cognitive skills exist at an earlier development stage, development ally delayed. Elaborate In other words, there be individuals that are taking longer to develop. They are developmentally delayed, meaning that their behavioral and cognitive skills exit at an earlier developmental stage than the skills of others who are the same hronological age. Without all the technical terms, basically these individuals gather in a harder time to develop and get involve in things any other individual would do, because they depend on someone else and most of the time they cannot live independently. To determine who has intellectual disability they must have an IQ lower than 70, adaptive behavior skills are l ow, and limitations presented by age 10. Exemplify For example, when we were all in high school school there were a few students who had their specials needs.They received the same opportunities as us, but also ould have their own special class to help them out with their disabilities. Most of the individuals had a staff with them at all times because they were not able to do things on their own. Illustrate part 2 confederate 1 Name I learned from about Ideal Self. Ideal Self is basically when someone is influenced by someone else and they try to live them. His example was perfect on how children see an athlete and they want to become Just like them because of how good they are, according to the child. I mentioned to about a different example on how I saw it.Children like superheroes when they are young and IVe seen this frequently when a child wants to become Spiderman, Batman, etc Partner 2 Name I learned from about the Latency stage. He explains to me that this stage is when children dont pay tutelage to opposite sex. Once he said that I thought about when I was young we used to say boys had cooties and girls had cooties. In the end that is what meant. His example made me laugh but it is true, when they are young they dont acquiring touched by the opposite sex. Topic Assignment-Psychology By eli_shorty

Compare and contrast these two newspaper articles Essay Example for Free

Compargon and contrast these two news piece of music words shewThe tag end and broadsheet articles have the same topic but atomic number 18 written in extremely different styles. They are both in the same place within the two physical compositions and are not on the front page. This shows they are not major stories. The lexis and syntax are different as is the graphology. The tabloids aim for identify glance overers in social groups C2, D and E while the broadshhet papers aim for target readers in social groups A, B and C1. The tabloid paper uses the pyramid formation to lay out the pages. The headline is made the biggest piece of writting to grab attention.A pun is ascribe in to get you to then read on. For Prince Harry they use His Royal Styness which is a play on words were they involve the story and how he is being punished by having to work on a farm. The tabloid then focuses mainly on the pictures which have been manipulated by adding in people that arent there t o make Harry look worse so to a greater extent people will want to read the rest of the story. The picture was superimposed and this sets you up for the sideline text. The writting its self isnt very informative and uses a basic lexis and syntax for wearing a Nazi akin to a pals fancy dress party. this uses a more than Colloquial language. The style is informal and the writer uses a semantic field of Nazis and pig farming. The tabloid also has small side stories and links that lead of in another direction, they have a story still involved with the royal family but moves of Prince Harry and on to the whole royal family when they have a survey about them. The writer makes the overall register kinda playful and slightly mocking towards the Prince making him look less respectable Weed the plants (not that weed Harry) is put into embarasses him as he had been acused of doing cannabis before.The writting is more depression found The rowdy royal than factual based and it doesnt stat e who the quotes are from in name a security resource revealed. Unlike the broadsheet paper so it shows that the tabloid paper is more factual. In the broadsheet paper the quotes seem more legitimate because it says exactly who is saying it and it gives a short amount of information about who the quote is from Ian Davidson, the MP for Glasgow. This article doesnt exploit the story and use it as an excuse to mock Prince Harry. The writer Andrew Pierce puts in his opinion subtly.The writer makes fewer puns and uses fewer pictures and focuses more on the actual text. Pierce uses a more mental syntax and using a wider and more polysyllabic words recomendations, combination and commemorate. Pierce uses longer more complex scentences using more clauses the hearings, which will be televised, begin on February 7. The target readership is for people who broadly enjoy reading, like those in social groups A, B and C1. Pierce took a different perspective on this story and didnt focus on Har ry so much but spread the story wider to obscure the whole of the royal family questioning them politaclly and morally.Plans by German politicians .. could cause further embarrassment for the Royal Family This shows that the braodsheet paper is taking things into more depth. The graphology is plainer with just the headline, the text and a small picture making you focus more on the actual text. The overal register is more serious and truthful. The broadsheet paper and tabloid papers are on two very different levels. The broadsheet is more in depth and formal, while the tabloid is more informal and uses a more colloquial language. This shows the different styles of writting used and the different layouts.

Monday, April 15, 2019

Johannesburg Sustainability Essay Example for Free

Johannesburg Sustainability EssayThe break up of this makeup is to advise the Johannesburg metropolis Government on ways to snip cytosine emissions within the urban center of Johannesburg, South Africa. Johannesburg city (Joburg) is listed as a participant with the C40 Cities initiative, in an effort to tackle the environmental issues of orbiculate warming and climate change. This initiative was established as a get hold ofership programme from re makeatives from major cities around the world, and aims to be at the forefront in encouraging sustainable practices in our urban areas (c40cities online, 2011). It is important beca practise to clearly define what sustainability is. From information provided in the plain-spoken University course material, a sustainable city is an urban environment in which its inhabitants lead fulfilling croaks and are able to meet their material and social needs without alter the environment it co-exists with (The Open University, Blo ck 6, 2010. p 22-23). yet to this a sustainable city should have a long-term perspective which allows it to produce its own resources. With this being said, Joburg finds itself faced with many, unnecessarily high, carbon producing activities such as a high volume of personal cars users and arriveing expertness from older technologies and non-renewable sources just to name a few. These practices are typical of major cities across the planet and represent the unsustainable development of human activities without regard for the environment we live in.Taking action to promote sustainability, desire the C40 Cities initiative, is the reason why this report has been drafted for Joburg. In particular this report impart focus on carbon emissions, their sources within the Joburg boundaries and effect on orbicular warming, and then present ways in which to combat the currently inadequate carbon producing activities that Joburg is experiencing. Finally the report leave fold with a summar y of the key points discussed in the making the case and the proposal sections. Recommendations on the information presented impart be put forward which is in alignment with the purpose of this report sustainability through reducing carbon emissions.Making The CaseJoburg has an important manipulation in making itself a sustainable city because of its influence, non only on the surrounding environment, provided as a leading city in meretricious production in South Africa. The with child(p) population of nearly 3.9 million inhabitants means the carbon stair that Joburg produces provide have a significant value and and then add to the issues of global warming and climate change. In a report published by a South African company, Metorex Ltd., the CO2 eq result not only minimise the effect of Joburgs carbon footprint on a global scale, but excessively act as a role model for other(a) cities in southerly Africa. Cities give care Joburg facilitate enormous flows of both heap and material within them. These flows of people and material top to the character of the city and its ability to adapt to change. It is this ability to adapt to change which will be the sterling(prenominal) obstacle in combating global warming and climate change, as reluctance to take the necessary stairs in securing our future will lead to devastating consequences. Consequences, as suggested by Block 6 could quest heat waves, flooding, and rising sea level. Creating cities which are flexible, as sustainable cities are, and which can cope with these environmental scenarios will undoubtedly go along way to sustaining quality of life in not only Joburg, but around the planet too.What better place to encourage change than to start with the economic institutions which pull people from across the country in search of better earning opportunity. In South Africa Joburg is such a city and is seen as the economic hub of South Africa, contributing to over a third of the countries Gross Dom estic crop (GDP) and 11% of Africas GDP ( South Africa Online, 2011). According to Block 6 Open University course material, encouraging activities which would lead to sustainability in Joburg could lead to the following results Improved energy efficiency leading to lower bills and lower lead for top executive Development of new a new grocery store in the midst of a rested economic market Better quality of life for inhabitants owing to reductions in pollution (air, water and waste) and at last much efficient production of goods and services for domestic consumption as a result of groundbreaking technologies. These are just a few of the more obvious advantages of creating a city with sustainable practices.So where does one start when fulfiling eco-friendly strategies? Why not with the authority in which the inhabitants of the city put their trust the Johannesburg metropolis Government. As the leading authority in making decisions which directly touch on the daily running o f the city, Joburg will be following other leading cities, like London, in gaining the political support it needs to nates the changes it wishes to make. Its no surprise that political support will be needed in gaining momentum to implement and manage Eco-legislature.When the metropolis Government puts its political weight behind notions like sustainable build designs, renewable energy sources, heavier car tax for large motor vehicles and more efficient waste management, then the mindset of the consumer, business man, company, conglomerate, institution or society as a whole changes and realises that these regulations will come into affect and its best to get onboard, or suffer the consequential penalties. Therefore as a leading decision-maker, the Johannesburg City Government should be best placed to initiate outlines and programs that effectively lead to gaining momentum needed in providing the tools for greener living.The proposal addresses 4 key areas which I believe are funda mental starting blocks to creating a sustainable Joburg. There are many more concepts or ideas which would only decrease CO2 emissions, hence contributing to sustainability, however I will be submitting just 4 key concepts that in my survey should be put into action immediately. Firstly, the City Transport commuter train system needs development. Currently Joburg offers its inhabitants stockpile in the form of busses and city trains. In a statement by Flora Mokgohloa, the Executive director of Environment in the City, she says that the Bus Rapid Transit (BRP) fascinate introduced in 2008, was introduced in an effort to reduce carbon emissions by up to 1.6million tons by 2020 (Flora Mokgohloa, 2010). The fact that commuters are only offered this form of transport within the city, apart from the trains which take it passengers to scattered stations, based too far away from each other to be an effective commuter transport system, forces commuters to seek other forms of more effic ient transport like using multi people carrier taxis.This in effect, fore-gos the CO2 emissions saved because of the excess taxi emissions ca employ in resolution to the search for an affordable transport service. A solution to this could be an incorporation of the the City Bike scheme that major cities such as Amsterdam, Paris and London have taken on. With specific stations positioned in the central business district within of Sandton, Alexandra and Randburg this could cut down congestion of traffic and therefore also make it more efficient. Not to mention the reductions in CO2 emissions will also lead to a healthier, cleaner environment. Joburgs physical landscape is flat, thus use of a central City Bike scheme combined with Car-Free Zones or Zero-CO2 emissions zones could booster a walking, riding or electrical personal transport commuter system within the city itself. Laying infrastructure such as bike pathways or electric motorised vehicle lanes would not be too much of a h assle as the reduction in traffic would lead to the the use of one of the numerous multi-lanes available from the current transport infrastructure. City Structure is another important key development area.As suggested in Block 6 by the Mayor of London, Mr Boris Johnson, all new construction greater than a certain size needs to obtain its right to be built after scrutiny by the Mayor himself (Course DVD Mayors Speech, 2008). In his scrutiny, the building should pass a number of prerequisites before being given the thumbs up to advance. Among these requirements are the ability of the building to produce 10% of its energy from a renewable source above others.If introduced in Joburg, this could lead to further development of renewable resource suppliers who look to supply the demand for energy from a renewable source. instead the new building could use its own form of energy creation through Solar or wind bureau. These are 2 greatly abundant sources of energy not yet fully tapped by t he South African market. The technology exists, is in use in Joburg already in the form of the Cosmo City scheme, essentially a solar water heater system however the demand has lacked and thus not supported further development (Joburg Online, 2011). With the enforcement of more rigid building requirements and energy management supply and manage-Further to this, Joburgs current city structure is the dictionary definition of urban crawl. Put simply, the city has stretched out horizontally and not utilized its potential space in the 3D arena. By this I refer to the large area it occupies (it is the largest city in South Africa) and with this lateral extension come greater energy consumption, as suggested by Richard Register in Block 6 (Block 6, 2010. p 129). By setting a indispensable height limit that guarantees a building height and minimalises developments which simply occupies horizontal space. Adding to this could be green incentives like vertical farms for example. Also by narro wing the spaces between building structures, less(prenominal) distance is travelled by commuters, more shade is provided and the opportunity for wind to be tunneled throughout the city arises, leading to even less energy consumption by use of air conditioner on hot summer days. This also answers to the logical system of access by proximity.Thus in using the natural landscape the city itself can be evolved, as likened to a living Eco-system in Block 6, to produce natural ways to regulate Joburgs temperature. Joburg gets its power from the only energy producer in South Africa, Eskom. This company as the only supplier with a national grid, controls the energy market as a monopoly. However there are renewable energy opportunities in available in South Africa. Firstly, sitting just outside the tropics, South Africa sees enough sunniness a year to promote the efficient use of solar power. Combined with this the terrain of the country itself is conducive to use of wind-turbine farms. The problem lies with the fact that these are relatively new technologies which are more expensive and which have little demand in South Africa. Cities like Joburg do not have the need for a more expensive energy supplier when there is a cheaper form through Eskom.Government subsidies, as used in the UK with Natural Gas Installations (Course DVD Mayors Speech, 2008), and more rigid requirements for use of renewable sources of energy, could as state above promote growth in a clean energy supplier market. Initially this is expensive, as subsidies provided by the government will mean cuts elsewhere to eco-projects, however in the long-run (as stated, with the intention of a long-term prospect) the cost of supplying renewable energy will decrease as new technologies hold out available. In the mean time, using decentralised combined heat and power plants will offset the superfluous CO2 emissions caused by unnecessary heating in nearby establishments when heat can be harvested and distrib uted topically from the production of power (Block 6, 2010. p 80).Finally the Education of city dwellers/businesses and role of the media is an important factor in the regulation and management of all green initiatives. This is because it helps build the momentum needed to gather support from the state, market and society spheres. Local inhabitants want to feel like what they have to say matters and is taken into consideration when plans for green-initiatives are implemented, and rather a part of the solution. Educating the inhabitants, by holding regular conferences, exhibitions, information evenings in low-income household areas will go a long way to gaining support and ease the process of implementing larger scale initiatives. The role of the media in the development of London shows that even laws can be influence when enough support is collect and represented (Block 6, 2010.p 54).ConclusionIn summary, the Johannesburg City Government has been presented with information on why J oburg needs to be a sustainable city. Adding to this, what it means to be a sustainable city and hence its importance for Joburg as an economic hub was highlighted. Following this, 4 key concepts to the future initial development of Joburg were discussed. Each highlighted the need for a commanding authority who has weight with legislation, a decent budget to throw towards greeninitiatives and the governing and management power to regulate and these initiatives. When an educated society gathers momentum, with the help of the Joburg market and the endorsement of Local Government (the state), it is then that Joburg will start to realise its green potential.ReferencesThe Open University (2009) U116 Environment journeys through a changing world, Block 6, Cities and sustainability, Milton Keynes, The Open University.U116 DVD Block 6, Part 2 Role of political leadership Mayors Speechc40cities Online, 2011. About the c40 , http//www.c40cities.org/ to the highest degree/, Accessed 05/06/2011 . Metorex Ltd Online, 2011. Metorex Carbon Footprint Report, http//www.metorexgroup.com/cmsAdmin/uploads/20110509_MtxCarbonFootprintAnalysis.pdf , Accessed 07/06/2011http//www.southafrica.to/provinces/Gauteng/towns/Johannesburg/Johannesburg.htm , Accessed 05/06/2011 Naidoo, R. 2010. Plan to cut gas emissions, http//www.joburg.org.za/index.phpoption=com_contentview=articleid=4922catid=1 20Itemid=201 , Accessed 06/06/2011 Khalianyane, L. 2011. Energy Effiency in office, http//www.joburg.org.za/index.phpoption=com_contentview=articleid=6713catid=8 8Itemid=266 , Accessed 06/06/2011

Sunday, April 14, 2019

Types Of Learning Styles Essay Example for Free

Types Of Learning Styles EssayThere are leash different types of learning styles. By taking a learning styles quiz, I found out that I am an auditory learner. This means I do best learning by hearing and listening. now spanging that I am an auditory learner I disregard discover untested techniques that go away help me be more attentive and I bunghole expand myself as a learner.First, discovering new techniques as an auditory learner to be more attentive is easy. I was not surprised when I saw the list of usual things auditory learns do. I felt as if the learning style I was assigned to fit me perfectly. I am one who entrust hum or talk to themselves or others when bored, acquire liveledge by reading aloud, or sit where they can hear but neednt pay attention to what is happening in front. These are all things I do daily without even up thinking about it. For example, every morning in my first period history class I will be typing the notes my teacher writes on the board but also working on other homework or looking things up. I need not to see what my teacher is doing. If save keep my ears open and listen, I believe I comprehend just as hygienic as someone who sits in the front row and has all their attention focused on the teacher. I know that I am automatically immune to already doing some of these techniques, but I also know there are more tips that I can incorporate in my daily life to merely myself for my future.Next, expanding myself as an auditory learner can greatly help me in the near future. I can become a meliorate reading by reading aloud as much as I can. Hearing myself say things aloud will help me remember a lot better than silent reading to myself. I can also become a better writer by repeating things after I hurl written them down on paper. If I read what I have written aloud, I will get a better view on if the veracious words are being used correctly in that specific sentence. Also I will get to hear if that sentence, parag raph, or even full essay sounds like Im doing well and staying on track. I tend to veer off subject sometimes, so I know that literal repetition will be helpful for any upcoming school courses or even scholarships that I will need to write essays for. Verbalization is the key and in my situation knowing my key fixings is going to help me expand my study skills and comprehension in school.All in all, I have become aware of what different changes I can make for myself. Taking the learning styles quiz and realizing that I am an auditory learner helped me realize how I can better myself throughout my learning years. I can discover new techniques that will help me be more attentive and I can expand myself as a learner and for that I am grateful.

Friday, April 12, 2019

Black Swan Report Essay Example for Free

Black Swan Report EssayUnreliable fabricator is a narrator who cant be self-assuranceed, because of a bias focalise of overhear, ignorance or self-interest. In the other hand, a reliable narrator is trustworthy, impartial, and most of the times omniscient. I loved the point of view of this movie because it all happened from the point of view of Nina, the protagonist. If you have some general knowledge about psychological disorders you will suspect of Nina having schizophrenia or dissociative identity disorder. Nina is not a reliable narrator, because her point of view of reality is altered. I believe that Nina doesnt die at the end. We cant trust her as a narrator.If she suffers schizophrenia, probably the scene in which she breaks the mirror and attacks Lily isnt truth therefore she couldnt have stabbed herself. I also find it hard to believe the fact that she danced with a big decline spot the whole presentation and no one in the crew or crowd call attention and she neve r fainted while dancing because of the loss of blood. I dont believe the ending is real. I think the ending is symbolic and Nina dying as the white swan is actually Nina accepting that the populace is not that good and shes losing her innocence. Another thing can be that she lost her rational billet and became totally insane. About the film, I believe some of the scenes were not necessary they could have been less explicit. It was a great film and I loved the theme.

Thursday, April 11, 2019

Nutritional knowledge Essay Example for Free

Nutritional noesis EssayDiscussion (guide 2000) The results on knowing the sum of BMI, it has been shown through the Chi-square test that there is no strong relationship between being obese and fellowship of this item. The same results were yielded for knowledge of fibre-rich food, recommended daily intake of fruits, and recommended daily intake of breads and cereals, which also had in portentous results in the Chi-square. The knowledge items which yielded a significant result in the Chi-square include recommended intake for various sources and reading labels. Health Behaviours Examining the t-test results, almost health behaviours prove to be significant. On the number of glasses consumed daily, the normal weight group had a higher average, indicating greater consumption. On the consideration of health in choice of food, there is no significant difference between the two groups. The same trend is observed on the while of taking supper. For time of sleeping, the obese group seems to sleep at a later time. Moreover, the normal weight group has a higher frequency of exercise sessions.The obese group also has more frequent intake of meals crisps sweets, hot chocolate or desert sweetie beverages low calorie drinks instant noodles and deep fried food. No such(prenominal) difference was noted between the two groups for frequency of eating snacks. The present study does suggest significant differences in the knowledge, lifestyles, and behaviours of normal and obese samples. This suggests that cognition, affect, and behaviour are meaningfully interlinked and that one affects the other.

Tuesday, April 9, 2019

Advanced Research Writing Essay Example for Free

Advanced Research Writing EssayThe number of online development, specifically relating to teaching musical composition in a distant learning environs was covered by professor Kate Kiefer. Kiefer is a prof and Writing Integration Coordinator at Colorado State University. She has a PH.D in rhetoric from Carnegie Mellon University and has written numerous published articles, including three textbooks. In the book Brave New Classrooms, Professor Kiefer writes a chapter titled, Do Students nod off More Than They Gain In Online Classrooms? Professor Kiefer tackles the difficult questions of just how such(prenominal) are disciples getting out of online writing coteriees. What is the goal of an online assimilator? Kiefer clearly has an wall socket with distance education and voices her opinion of its inferiority to a schoolroom environment. Her numerous assertions of distance learning students not getting the effected education experience must be taken for what it is, an in structors point of view and not a students. Online education is becoming more prevalent every day, because not everyone has the time or funding to get to and from a college campus.This method should be embraced by instructors and not talked down on, simply because thither is no other option for so some(prenominal). Professor Kiefer wholeheartedly states in her article, that she believes taking an online writing class is inferior to a tralatitious structured classroom environment. She states that she is not in the majority on this issue, notwithstanding she speaks of the many difficulties that face a student and instructor online. One of Professor Kiefers most adamant points against online writing classes is the true lack of interaction a student can puddle. She talks of how so many online classrooms break students who do not participate and do only what is needed to pass the class. Kiefer suggests that on-line classes are lots full of students who are looking to check a box a nd get that next check mark, which forget take them to finish line and a degree. She also states how not having peer to peer interaction robs the online student of so much valuable education. In a writing class it is pivotal she states to boast your first matestudents peer review your work and not just have the teacher looking at your assignment.She covers the issue of how universities are trying to add more and more students online, because when it all boils down to it, money is what they are after. Professor Kiefer goes over a few ideas of how to make an online writing class better, such as requiring participation in discussions, but eventually she feels that online instruction in writing classes, leave the student short of what a teacher would like them to learn in a class. Professor Kiefer is very adamant on the loss of personalized interaction in online writing classes and how it diminishes the importance of personal interaction, which to some extent is very true. In a rece nt article published by the Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, documenting over 125 traditional face to face classes, it found very strong support for the existence of a community of interrogative that is shared within each class section. (Fernandes, Oct 2013)While It may be almost impossible to mother the same type of peer to peer interaction in a distance learning form compared to a traditional classroom, the adopt does not take into account that many online students have a net income of support they are able to bounce ideas off of. While the journal study names student networking as a weakness to online classrooms, it does not really mention the fact that many physical classroom environments have students that do not want to participate. Professor Kiefer also addresses the high dropout aim of online students. This makes me wonder if the dropout rate is due to non-flexibility within the school offering the classes of if it is students just not taking it seriously. A recent study published in Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks by the Dean of Online Education at Dallas Baptist University note that their university offers thirty-four online degree programs and Dallas Baptist University has maintained a 92% course completion rate (Shelton, Oct 2009).I would have liked to have seen professor Kiefer give the standard dropout rate of traditional classroom students at a university. It is very possible that online education is still in such an evolving state, that there are many antithetic factors leading to a high dropout rate. Many schools have not properly trained their faculty in correctly dealing with online education, while some of it is definitely the daily lives of online students that get it in the way. Professor Kiefer makes many valid points on her topics, however the reasonsshe gives regarding why students take online courses, are the exact reasons they must continue. People with jobs and twoscore hour work week cant take time out to drive to the university every day.Online classes have been going for a number of years now, but it is still in its infancy compared to classroom instruction. there are still so many ideas created each day that can make this learning environment better. Professor Kiefer makes a good argument regarding the negative impacts of online writing classes, but the reason we have online classes to expire with are why they cant stop. The goals of online students are the same as other students, they want to better their lives and that educate themselves. That lifeline cannot be taken away, because there are doubts about its effectiveness. It is up to everyone to keep reservation strides and improving the experience of online education.BibliographyFernandes, B. R. (Oct 2013). Measuring the Community in Online Classes. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 17(3), pp 115-136. Kiefer, K. (2007). Do Students Lose More than They Gain in Online Writing Classes? In Brave New Classrooms. (Vo l. 37, pp. 141-151). New York, NY Peter Lang USA. Shelton, K. (Oct 2009). Does squiffy Faculty Support Equal Consistent Course Completion? It Has for Dallas Baptist University. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 13(3), pp 63-66.

Monday, April 8, 2019

Art After Philosophy (1969) Joseph Kosuth Essay Example for Free

blind After philosophy (1969) Joseph Kosuth Es stateThe position that it has recently become fashionable for physicists themselves to be sympathetic toward religion . . . marks the physicists own lack of arrogance in the rigour of their hypotheses, which is a reaction on their p ruse from the antireligious dogmatism of nineteenth- degree Celsius scientists, and a natural number of the crisis through which physics has just passed. A. J. Ayer. . . . once unmatchable has understood the Tractatus at that place get out be no temptation to concern whizself any much with philosophical system, which is neither semi falsifiable like science nor tauto logical like math ane will, like Wittgenstein in 1918, aban seize doctrine, which, as tradition anyy understood, is rooted in confusion. J. O. Urmson.Traditional ism, some by definition, has bear on itself with the unsaid. The well-nigh exclusive focus on the said by twentieth-century uninflectedal linguistic philosophers is the sh bed contention that the unsaid is unsaid because it is unsayable. Hegelian philosophy tie comprehend in the nineteenth century and must waste been soothing to a century that was b atomic number 18ly getting over Hume, the Enlightenment, and Kant.1 Hegels philosophy was also capable of giving cover for a defense of religious beliefs, supplying an alternate(a) to Newtonian mechanics, and fitting in with the growth of history as a discipline, as swell as accept Darwinian biology.2 He appeared to give an acceptable resolution to the conflict amidst theology and science, as well. The result of Hegels influence has been that a great majority of modern philosophers are really little more than historians of philosophy, Librarians of the Truth, so to let loose.One begins to get the impression that there is nonhing more to be said. And for sure if one and only(a) incarnates the implications of Wittgensteins withdrawing, and the thinking influenced by him and after him, Continental philosophy need not poorly be bringed here.3 Is there a contend for the unreality of philosophy in our time? Perhaps this gage be answered by looking into the difference between our time and the centuries preceding us. In the past human races conclusions ab break the ground were based on the teaching he had nigh it if not specifi covery like the empiricists, then globally like the rationalists.Often in occurrence, the closeness between science and philosophy was so great that scientists and philosophers were one and the same person. In fact, from the times of Thales, Epicurus, Heraclitus, and Aristotle to Desc blindes and Leibnitz, the great names in philosophy were oft great names in science as well.4 That the world as perceive by twentieth-century science is a vastly different one than the one of its preceding century, need not be proved here.Is it possible, then, that in effect man has learned so much, and his intelligence is such, that he give noticeno t deal the reasoning of traditional philosophy? That perhaps he knows too much close the world to have got those kinds of conclusions? As Sir James Jeans has stated . . . When philosophy has availed itself of the results of science, it has not been by borro denotation the abstract mathematical comment of the pattern of events, precisely by borrowing the then current pictorial description of this pattern thence it has not appropriated authoritative knowledge but conjectures. These conjectures were often good enough for the man-sized world, but not, as we now know, for those ultimate processes of disposition which control the happenings of the man-sized world, and bring us nearest to the true disposition of reality.5He continuesOne consequence of this is that the standard philosophical discussions of many problems, such as those of causality and let go will orof materialism or mentalism, are based on an interpretation of the pattern of events which is no long tenable. The s cientific basis of these older discussions has been washed away, and with their disappearance have gone all the arguments . . .6The twentieth century brought in a time that could be called the end of philosophy and the stem of guile. I do not mean that, of course, strictly speaking, but rather as the tendency of the situation. Certainly linguistic philosophy nominate be considered the heir to empiricism, but its a philosophy in one gear.7 And there is for sure an machination condition to dodge preceding Duchamp, but its some new(prenominal) leans or reasons-to-be are so sound out that its ability to put to work clearly as dodge limits its device condition so drastically that its only minimally prowess.8 In no mechanistic sense is there a connection between philosophys ending and guiles beginning, but I dont get this occurrence entirely coincidental. Though the same reasons may be responsible for both occurrences, the connection is do by me.I bring this all up to an alyze blinds function and afterward its viability. And I do so to enable others to understand the reasoning of my and, by extension, other subterfugeists blindistic production, as well to provide a clearer understanding of the term conceptual inventionistic production.9 THE FUNCTION OF ART The main qualifications to the slighter position of painting is that advances in art are for certain not unceasingly full-dress ones. Donald Judd (1963). half(prenominal) or more of the best modernistic work in the last few years has been neither painting nor sculpture. Donald Judd (1965). Everything sculpture has, my work doesnt. Donald Judd (1967). The thinking becomes a machine that makes the art. Sol LeWitt (1965) The one thing to say closely art is that it is one thing. fine art is art-as-art and all(prenominal)thing else is everything else. Art as art is nothing but art.Art is not what is not art. Ad Reinhardt (1963). The meaning is the use. Wittgenstein. A more functiona l approach to the study of theorys has tended to substitute the method of introspection. Instead of attempting to cover or describe concepts bare, so to speak, the psychologist investigates the way in which they function as ingredients in beliefs and in judgments. Irving M. Copi. Meaning is always a presupposition of function. T. Segerstedt. . . . the subject matter of conceptual investigations is the meaning of certain words and expressions and not the things and states of affairs themselves about which we talk, when using those words and expressions. G. H. Von Wright.Thinking is radically metaphoric. Linkage by analogy is its constituent law or principle, its causal nexus, since meaning only arises through the causal scopes by which a sign stands for (takes the place of) an instance of a variant. To think of anything is to take it as of a sort (as a such and such) and that as brings in (openly or in disguise) the analogy, the parallel, the metaphoric grapple or free-base or grasp or draw by which alone the mind takes hold. It takes no hold if there is nothing for it to haul from, for its thinking is the haul, the attraction of likes I. A. Richards.In this section I will discuss the legal separation between aesthetics and art consider brie travel formalist art (because it is a leading proponent of the idea of aesthetics as art), and assert that art is analogous to an analytic marriage proposal, and that it is arts existence as a tautology that enables art to remain aloof from philosophical presumptions. It is necessary to separate aesthetics from art because aesthetics deals with opinions on perception of the world in general. In the past one of the two prongs of arts function was its value as decoration. So any branch of philosophy that dealt with beauty and thus, taste, was unavoidably duty bound to discuss art as well. Out of this habit grew the notion that there was a conceptual connection between art and aesthetics, which is not true.This idea never drastically conflicted with creative personic friendships in front recent times, not only because the geomorphologic reference pointistics of art perpetuated the continuity of this error, but as well, because the apparent other functions of art (depiction of religious themes, portraiture of aristocrats, detailing of architecture, etc.) used art to cover up art. When objects are presented indoors the context of art (and until recently objects always have been used) they are as eligible for aesthetic consideration as are any objects in the world, and an aesthetic consideration of an object real in the neighborhood of art means that the objects existence or functioning in an art context is irrelevant to the aesthetic judgment. The relation of aesthetics to art is not unlike that of aesthetics to architecture, in that architecture has a very specific function and how good its design is is primarily related to how well it performs its function.Thus, judgments on what it loo ks like correspond to taste, and we kindle see that throughout history different examples of architecture are praised at different times opineing on the aesthetics of particular epochs. Aesthetic thinking has even gone so farthermost as to make examples of architecture not related to art at all, work of art in themselves (e.g., the pyramids of Egypt). Aesthetic considerations are indeed always extraneous to an objects function or reason-tobe. Unless of course, that objects reason-to-be is strictly aesthetic.An example of a stringently aesthetic object is a cosmetic object, for decorations primary function is to add something to, so as to make more enchanting adorn ornament,10 and this relates directly to taste. And this leads us directly to formalist art and blame.11 Formalist art (painting and sculpture) is the vanguard of decoration, and, strictly speaking, one could reasonably assert that its art condition is so minimal that for all functional purposes it is not art at all , but pure exercises in aesthetics. Above all things Clement Greenberg is the critic of taste. Behind every one of his decisions is an aesthetic judgment, with those judgments reflecting his taste. And what does his taste reflect? The period he grew up in as a critic, the period real for him the fifties.12How else female genital organ one account for, given his theories if they have any logic to them at all his disinterest in Frank Stella, Ad Reinhardt, and others applicable to his historical scheme? Is it because he is . . . fundamentally unsympathetic on personally experiential grounds?13 Or, in other words, their work doesnt suit his taste? tho in the philosophic tabula rasa of art, if someone calls it art, as Don Judd has said, its art. precondition this, formalist painting and sculpture can be granted an art condition, but only by fair play of their presentation in terms of their art idea (e.g., a rectangular-shaped canvas stretched over wooden supports and varnished with such and such colors, using such and such forms, giving such and such a visual experience, etc.). If one looks at contemporary art in this light one realizes the minimal creative attack taken on the part of formalist artists specifically, and all painters and sculptors (working as such today) generally.This brings us to the realization that formalist art and criticism accepts as a definition of art one that exists solely on morphological grounds. While a vast quantity of similar looking objects or images (or visually related objects or images) may depend to be related (or connected) because of a similarity of visual/experiential readings, one cannot claim from this an artistic or conceptual relationship. It is obvious then that formalist criticisms reliance on geomorphology leads necessarily with a bias toward the morphology of traditional art. And in this sense their criticism is not related to a scientific method or any sort of empiricism (as Michael fry, with his detailed descriptions of paintings and other scholarly paraphernalia would take us to believe).Formalist criticism is no more than an analysis of the somatogenetic attributes of particular objects that happen to exist in a morphological context. But this doesnt add any knowledge (or facts) to our understanding of the constitution or function of art. And neither does it comment on whether or not the objects analyzed are even unanimous shebang of art, in that formalist critics always bypass the conceptual element in works of art. Exactly why they dont comment on the conceptual element in works of art is precisely because formalist art is only art by virtue of its resemblance to before works of art. Its a blank art. Or, as Lucy Lippard so succinctly described Jules Olitskis paintings theyre visual Muzak.14 Formalist critics and artists alike do not question the nature of art, but as I have said elsewhere world an artist now means to question the nature of art. If one is questioning the nature of painting, one cannot be questioning the nature of art. If an artist accepts painting (or sculpture) he is accepting the tradition that goes with it. Thats because the word art is general and the word painting is specific. Painting is a kind of art. If you make paintings you are already accepting (not questioning) the nature of art. One is then accepting the nature of art to be the European tradition of a painting-sculpture dichotomy.15The strongest objection one can raise against a morphological justification for traditional art is that morphological notions of art embody an implied a priori concept of arts possibilities. And such an a priori concept of the nature of art (as separate from analytically framed art propositions or work, which I will discuss later) makes it, indeed, a priori impossible to question the nature of art. And this questioning of the nature of art is a very important concept in understanding the function of art.The function of art, as a question, was first raised by marcel Duchamp. In fact it is Marcel Duchamp whom we can credit with giving art its own identity. (One can for certain see a tendency toward this self-identification of art beginning with Manet and Czanne through to Cubism,16 but their works are timid and ambiguous by comparison with Duchamps.) Modern art and the work before seemed connected by virtue of their morphology. some other way of sitting it would be that arts spoken language remained the same, but it was maxim new things. The event that made conceivable the realization that it was possible to speak other language and noneffervescent make sense in art was Marcel Duchamps first unassisted Ready-made. With the unassisted Ready-made, art changed its focus from the form of the language to what was being said. Which means that it changed the nature of art from a question of morphology to a question of function.This change one from appearance to conception was the beginning of modern art and the beginnin g of conceptual art. All art (after Duchamp) is conceptual (in nature) because art only exists conceptually. The value of particular artists after Duchamp can be weighed according to how much they questioned the nature of art which is another way of saying what they added to the conception of art or what wasnt there before they started. Artists question the nature of art by presenting new propositions as to arts nature. And to do this one cannot concern oneself with the handed-down language of traditional art, as this practise is based on the assumption that there is only one way of framing art propositions. But the very stuff of art is indeed greatly related to creating new propositions.The strip is often made especially in reference to Duchamp that objects of art (such as the Ready-mades, of course, but all art is implied in this) are judged as objets dart in later years and the artists intentions become irrelevant. Such an argument is the case of a preconceived notion stradd leing together not necessarily related facts. The point is this aesthetics, as we have pointed out, are conceptually irrelevant to art. Thus, any physical thing can become objet dart, that is to say, can be considered tasteful, aesthetically pleasing, etc. But this has no bearing on the objects application to an art context that is, its functioning in an art context. (E.g., if a collector takes a painting, attaches legs, and uses it as a dining table its an act unrelated to art or the artist because, as art, that wasnt the artists intention.) And what holds true for Duchamps work applies as well to most of the art after him. In other words, the value of Cubism for instance is its idea in the realm of art, not the physical or visual qualities seen in a specific painting, or the particularization of certain colors or shapes.For these colors and shapes are the arts language, not its meaning conceptually as art. To look upon a cubist masterwork now as art is nonsensical, conceptually speaking, as far as art is concerned. (That visual information that was unique in Cubisms language has now been generally absorbed and has a stool to do with the way in which one deals with painting linguistically. E.g., what a Cubist painting meant experimentally and conceptually to, say, Gertrude Stein, is beyond our speculation because the same painting then meant something different than it does now.) The value now of an original Cubist painting is not unlike, in most respects, an original manuscript by Lord Byron, or The affection of St. Louis as it is seen in the Smithsonian Institution. (Indeed, museums fill the very same function as the Smithsonian Institution why else would the Jeu de Paume wing of the Louvre exhibitCzannes and Van Goghs palettes as proudly as they do their paintings?) Actual works of art are little more than historical curiosities. As far as art is concerned Van Goghs paintings arent worth any more than his palette is. They are both collectors items.17 Art lives through influencing other art, not by existing as the physical residue of an artists ideas. The reason that different artists from the past are brought active again is because some thought of their work becomes usable by living artists. That there is no verity as to what art is seems quite unrealized. What is the function of art, or the nature of art? If we continue our analogy of the forms art takes as being arts language one can realize then that a work of art is a kind of proposition presented indoors the context of art as a comment on art. We can then go further and analyze the types of propositions.A. J. Ayers evaluation of Kants distinction between analytic and synthetic is useful to us here A proposition is analytic when its validity depends solely on the definitions of the symbols it contains, and synthetic when its validity is determined by the facts of experience.18 The analogy I will attempt to make is one between the art condition and the condition of the an alytic proposition. In that they dont appear to be believable as anything else, or be about anything (other than art) the forms of art most clearly closingly referable only to art have been forms closest to analytical propositions. industrial plant of art are analytic propositions. That is, if viewed within their context as art they provide no information whatsoever about any matter of fact. A work of art is a tautology in that it is a presentation of the artists intention, that is, he is saying that that particular work of art is art, which means, is a definition of art.Thus, that it is art is true a priori (which is what Judd means when he states that if someone calls it art, its art). Indeed, it is nearly impossible to discuss art in general terms without talking in tautologies for to attempt to grasp art by any other handle is merely to focus on another aspect or quality of the proposition, which is usually irrelevant to the artworks art condition. One begins to realize tha t arts art condition is a conceptual state. That the language forms that the artist frames his propositions in are often private codes or languages is an inevitable outcome of arts freedom from morphological constrictions and it follows from this that one has to be familiar with contemporary art to appreciate it and understand it. Likewise one understands why the man in the street is intolerant to artistic art and always demands art in a traditional language. (And one understands why formalist art sells like hot cakes.)Only in painting and sculpture did the artists all speak the same language. What is called Novelty Art by the formalists is often the attempt to find new languages, although a new language doesnt necessarily mean the framing of new propositions e.g., most kinetic and electronic art. Another way of stating, in relation to art, what Ayer asserted about the analytic method in the context of language would be the following The validity of artistic propositions is not depe ndent on any empirical, much less any aesthetic, presupposition about the nature of things. For the artist, as an analyst, is not directly concerned with the physical properties of things. He is concerned only with the way (1) in which art is capable of conceptual growth and (2) how his propositions are capable of logically following that growth.19 In other words, the propositions of art are not factual, but linguistic in character that is, they do not describe the behavior of physical, or even mental objects they express definitions of art, or the formal consequences of definitions of art.Accordingly, we can say that art operates on a logic. For we shall see that the characteristic mark of a purely logical inquiry is that it is concerned with the formal consequences of our definitions (of art) and not with questions of empirical fact.20 To repeat, what art has in jet with logic and mathematics is that it is a tautology i.e., the art idea (or work) and art are the same and can be appreciated as art without going outside the context of art for verification.On the other hand, let us consider why art cannot be (or has difficulty when it attempts to be) a synthetic proposition. Or, that is to say, when the lawfulness or falsity of its assertion is verifiable on empirical grounds. Ayer states . . . The criterion by which we determine the validity of an a priori or analytical proposition is not sufficient to determine the validity of an empirical or synthetic proposition. For it is characteristic of empirical propositions that their validity is not purely formal. To say that a geometrical proposition, or a system of geometrical propositions, is false, is to say that it is self-contradictory. But an empirical proposition, or a system of empirical propositions, may be free from contradiction and still be false. It is said to be false, not because it is formally defective, but because it fails to satisfy some material criterion.21The unreality of realistic art is du e to its framing as an art proposition in synthetic terms one is always tempted to master the proposition empirically. realisms synthetic state does not bring one to a circular swing patronage into a dialogue with the larger framework of questions about the nature of art (as does the work of Malevich, Mondrian, Pollock, Reinhardt, early Rauschenberg, Johns, Lichtenstein, Warhol, Andre, Judd, Flavin, LeWitt, Morris, and others), but rather, one is flung out of arts orbit into the infinite blank space of the human condition. Pure Expressionism, chronic with Ayers terms, could be considered as such A sentence which consisted of demonstrative symbols would not express a genuine proposition. It would be a mere ejaculation, in no way characterizing that to which it was supposed to refer.Expressionist works are usually such ejaculations presented in the morphological language of traditional art. If Pollock is important it is because he painted on loose canvas horizontally to the floor. What isnt important is that he later put those drippings over stretchers and hung them parallel to the wall. (In other words what is important in art is what one brings to it, not ones adoption of what was previously existing.) What is even less important to art is Pollocks notions of self-expression because those kinds of native meanings are useless to anyone other than those involved with him personally. And their specific quality puts them outside of arts context. I do not make art, Richard Serra says, I am engaged in an activity if someone wants to call it art, thats his business, but its not up to me to decide that. Thats all figured out later. Serra, then, is very much aware of the implications of his work.If Serra is indeed just figuring out what lead does (gravitationally, molecularly, etc.), why should anyone think of it as art? If he doesnt take the responsibility of it being art, who can, or should? His work certainly appears to be empirically verifiable lead can do, and be used for, many physical activities. In itself this does anything but lead us into a dialogue about the nature of art. In a sense then he is a primitive. He has no idea about art. How is it then that we know about his activity?Because he has told us it is art by his actions after his activity has taken place. That is, by the fact that he is with several galleries, puts the physical residue of his activity in museums (and sells them to art collectors but as we have pointed out, collectors are irrelevant to the condition of art of a work). That he denies his work is art but plays the artist is more than just a paradox. Serra secretly feels that arthood is arrived at empirically. Thus, as Ayer has stated There are no absolutely certain empirical propositions. It is only tautologies that are certain. Empirical questions are one and all hypotheses, which may be confirmed or discredited in actual sense experience. And the propositions in which we record the observations that verify th ese hypotheses are themselves hypotheses which are subject to the test of further sense experience. Thus there is no final proposition.22What one finds all throughout the writings of Ad Reinhardt is this very similar thesis of artas-art, and that art is always dead, and a living art is a deception.23 Reinhardt had a very clear idea about the nature of art, and his importance is far from recognized. Because forms of art that can be considered synthetic propositions are verifiable by the world, that is to say, to understand these propositions one must leave the tautological-like framework of art and consider outside information. But to consider it as art it is necessary to ignore this same outside information, because outside information (experiential qualities, to note) has its own internal worth. And to comprehend this worth one does not need a state of art condition.From this it is easy to realize that arts viability is not connected to the presentation of visual (or other) kinds of experience. That that may have been one of arts extraneous functions in the preceding centuries is not unlikely. After all, man in even the nineteenth century lived in a fairly standardized visual environment. That is, it was ordinarily predictable as to what he would be coming into contact with day after day. His visual environment in the part of the world in which he lived was fairly consistent. In our time we have an experientially drastically richer environment. One can fly all over the earth in a matter of hours and days, not months. We have the cinema, and color television, as well as the man-made spectacle of the lights of Las Vegas or the skyscrapers of New York City.The whole world is there to be seen, and the whole world can watch man walk on the moon from their living rooms. Certainly art or objects of painting and sculpture cannot be expected to compete experientially with this? The notion of use is relevant to art and its language. Recently the box or cube form has b een used a great deal within the context of art. (Take for instance its use by Judd, Morris, LeWitt, Bladen, Smith, Bell, and McCracken not even mentioning the quantity of boxes and cubes that came after.) The difference between all the various uses of the box or cube form is directly related to the differences in the intentions of the artists. Further, as is particularly seen in Judds work, the use of the box or cube form illustrates very well our earlier claim that an object is only art when placed in the context of art.A few examples will point this out. One could say that if one of Judds box forms was seen filled with debris, seen placed in an industrial setting, or even merely seen sitting on a street corner, it would not be set with art. It follows then that understanding and consideration of it as an artwork is necessary a priori to viewing it in order to see it as a work of art. Advance information about the concept of art and about an artists concepts is necessary to the appreciation and understanding of contemporary art. Any and all of the physical attributes (qualities) of contemporary works, if considered separately and/or specifically, are irrelevant to the art concept. The art concept (as Judd said, though he didnt mean it this way) must be considered in its whole. To consider a concepts parts is eer to consider aspects that are irrelevant to its art condition or like reading parts of a definition.It comes as no surprise that the art with the least fixed morphology is the example from which we decipher the nature of the general term art. For where there is a context existing separately of its morphology and consisting of its function one is more likely to find results less conforming and predictable. It is in modern arts self-discipline of a language with the shortest history that the plausibility of the abandonment of that language becomes most possible. It is understandable then that the art that came out of Western painting and sculpture is the most energetic, questioning (of its nature), and the least assuming of all the general art concerns. In the final analysis, however, all of the arts have but (in Wittgensteins terms) a family resemblance. merely the various qualities relatable to an art condition possessed by numbers, the novel, the cinema, the theatre, and various forms of music, etc., is that aspect of them most reliable to the function of art as asserted here.Is not the decline of poetry relatable to the implied metaphysics from poetrys use of common language as an art language?24 In New York the last decadent stages of poetry can be seen in the move by Concrete poets recently toward the use of actual objects and theatre.25 bottom of the inning it be that they feel the unreality of their art form? We see now that the axioms of a geometry are scarce definitions, and that the theorems of a geometry are simply the logical consequences of these definitions. A geometry is not in itself about physical space in itself it cannot be said to be about anything. But we can use a geometry to reason about physical space.That is to say, once we have given the axioms a physical interpretation, we can proceed to put through the theorems to the objects which satisfy the axioms. Whether a geometry can be applied to the actual physical world or not, is an empirical question which falls outside the scope of geometry itself. There is no sense, therefore, in asking which of the various geometries know to us are false and which are true. Insofar as they are all free from contradiction, they are all true. The proposition which states that a certain application of a geometry is possible is not itself a proposition of that geometry. All that the geometry itself tells us is that if anything can be brought under the definitions, it will also satisfy the theorems. It is therefore a purely logical system, and its propositions are purely analytic propositions. A. J. Ayer26Here then I propose rests the viabilit y of art. In an age when traditional philosophy is unreal because of its assumptions, arts ability to exist will depend not only on its not performing a service as entertainment, visual (or other) experience, or decoration which is something comfortably replaced by kitsch culture, and technology, but, rather, it will remain viable by not assuming a philosophical stance for in arts unique character is the capacity to remain alooffrom philosophical judgments. It is in this context that art shares similarities with logic, mathematics, and, as well, science. But whereas the other endeavors are useful, art is not. Art indeed exists for its own sake. In this period of man, after philosophy and religion, art may possibly be one endeavor that fulfills what another age might have called mans spiritual needs. Or, another way of putting it might be that art deals analogously with the state of things beyond physics where philosophy had to make assertions. And arts strength is that even the p receding sentence is an assertion, and cannot be verified by art. Arts only claim is for art. Art is the definition of art.NOTES * Reprinted from Studio International (October, 1969). 1 Morton White, The get on of Analysis (New York Mentor Books), p. 14. 2 Ibid., p. 15. 3 I mean by this Existentialism and Phenomenology. Even Merleau-Ponty, with his center position between empiricism and rationalism, cannot express his philosophy without the use of words (thus using concepts) and following this, how can one discuss experience without sharp distinctions between ourselves and the world? 4 Sir James Jeans, Physics and Philosophy (Ann Arbor, Mich. University of Michigan Press), p. 17. 5 Ibid., p. 190. 6 Ibid., p. 190. 7 The task such philosophy has taken upon itself is the only function it could perform without making philosophic assertions. 8 This is dealt with in the following section. 9 I would like to make it clear, however, that I intend to speak for no one else. I arrived at thes e conclusions alone, and indeed, it is from this thinking that my art since 1966 (if not before) evolved.Only recently did I realize after meeting Terry Atkinson that he and Michael Baldwin share similar, though certainly not identical, opinions to mine. 10 Websters New World Dictionary of the American Language. 11 The conceptual level of the work of Kenneth Noland, Jules Olitski, Morris Louis, Ron Davis, Anthony Caro, John Hoyland, Dan Christensen, et al., is so dismally low, that any that is there is supplied by the critics promoting it. This is seen later. 12 Michael Frieds reasons for using Greenbergs rationale reflect his background (and most of the other formalist critics) as a scholar, but more of it is due to his desire, I suspect, to bring his scholarly studies into the modern world. One can easily sympathize with his desire to connect, say, Tiepolo with Jules Olitski. One should never forget, however, that a historian loves history more than anything, even art.13 Lucy Lipp ard uses this quotation in a footnote to Ad Reinhardts retrospective catalogue, January, 1967, p. 28. 14 Lucy Lippard, Constellation by Harsh Daylight The Whitney Annual, Hudson Review, Vol. 21, No. 1 (Spring, 1968). 15 Arthur R. Rose, Four Interviews, Arts Magazine (February, 1969). 16 As Terry Atkinson pointed out in his introduction to Art-Language (Vol. 1, No. 1), the Cubists never questioned if art had morphological characteristics, but which ones in painting were acceptable. 17 When someone buys a Flavin he isnt buying a light show, for if he was he could just go to a hardware store and get the goods for considerably less. He isnt buying anything. He is subsidizing Flavins activity as an artist. 18 A. J. Ayer, Language, Truth, and Logic (New York Dover Publications), p. 78. 19 Ibid., p. 57.20 Ibid., p. 57. 21 Ibid., p.90. 22 Ibid., p. 94. 23 Ad Reinhardts retrospective catalogue (Jewish Museum, January, 1967) written by Lucy Lippard, p. 12. 24 It is poetrys use of common langu age to attempt to say the unsayable that is problematic, not any inbuilt problem in the use of language within the context of art. 25 Ironically, many of them call themselves Conceptual Poets. Much of this work is very similar to Walter de mares work and this is not coincidental de Marias work functions as a kind of object poetry, and his intentions are very poetic he really wants his work to change mens lives. 26 Op. cit., p. 82.