Friday, May 31, 2019

Genocide Apology Essay -- Government

The Politics of Apology What are your views on moving on, forgive and forget or saying sorry for any(prenominal) genocide.There comes a time in the history of a nation when peoples must become fully reconciled to their past if they are to go frontwards with confidence to embrace their future (Rudd, 2008 p. 167).The concept of justification is often linked to reparations in genocide studies (Lofstrom, 2011 p. 94). Scholars will question whether an apology or an admission of transgression is an adequate post-genocidal response. If an apology is not enough, then how does any institution, government or political group approach the issue of moving on from past wrongs? Does the precise act of apologising help to mask the ongoing issues still faced by those who are oppressed? With reference to the Apology to Australias Indigenous People offered by the Federal Government on 13 February 2008, has this apology served its intended purpose, or is more work required to achieve an effective and lasting reconciliation among white Australia, and its indigenous forbears. To explore these questions, it is important to gain a wider understanding of the content of an apology, the purpose of an apology, and also to look more closely into the effects of apology in a specific circumstance.Blatz, Schumann and Ross (2009 p. 221) identify 6 key elements that comprise a comprehensive apology. These elements are remorse, acceptance of responsibility, admission of injustice or wrongdoing, realization of harm and/or victim suffering, forbearance or promises to be defend better in future and offers of repair. These elements should be present in any apology if it is to have the desired effect.Stamato (2008 p. 389) offers an interpretation of the purpose and effec... .... Axis rule in occupied Europe. New York The Lawbook Exchange Ltd.Lofstrom, J. (2011). Historical apologies as acts of symbolic inclusion and exclusion? Reflections on institutional apologies as politics of cultural c itizenship. Citizenship Studies 15(1)93-108.Murphy, F. (2011). Archives of sorrow an exploration of Australias stolen generations and their journey into the past. History & Anthropology 22(4)481-495.Rudd, K. (2008). Australia, House of Representitives 2008, Debates, vol.HR1, pp. 167, accessed 22/3/2012, http//parlinfo.aph.gov.au/parlInfo/genpdf/chamber/hansardr/2008-02-13/0003/hansard_frag.pdffileType= natural covering%2FpdfShort, D. (2010). Australia a continuing genocide? Journal of Genocide Research 1245-68.Stamato, L. (2008). Peace and the culture and politics of apology. Peace Review A Journal of loving Justice 20389-397.

Thursday, May 30, 2019

Changing Impressions: A Sydney Carton Character Analysis Essays

They say a first impression is everything. However, Ive found that these arent reliable. Some pack cover their true feelings, trying to be tough. You never know whats going on in peoples lives when you first meet them that causes them to form differently. And sometimes, we just make inaccurate assumptions. This is also true of things in literature. In Charles Dickenss novel A Tale of Two Cities, and in wholly his novels, he wants to confuse people to keep them reading. He creates complex characters who change over time, or sort of just gives us more information limit our decisions our opinions. One of these complex characters who Dickens brings out in different light later on is Sydney Carton. In the beginning of the story, when he is first introduced to us at Charles Darnays trial, we just now see his outward actions, and none of his feelings. All we see of the man is that he appears to be a sloppy rummy, and quite the good-for-nothing loser. He spends the entire percentag e point during the trial staring at the ceiling with his eyes glazed over, never speaking once because hes too drunk to do so.We later see that him after the trial, at a restaurant with Darnay. He does nothing other than drink. He orders glass after glass of wine, getting as drunk as possible. One wonders if he ever does anything else. He is rather mean to Darnay after the man thanks him profusely, and continues to drink. We see that not only is he a drunk, hes a mean drunk. And then after Darnay leaves, Carton covers his head, lays down on the table, and tells the waitress to wake him at ten P.M. as he passes out. It almost implies he has nowhere else to go, but mostly just tells a reader that he has nothing better to do.We also see him at his police partner Stryvers house, working late night hours as he drinks still more. It would seem that Stryver pulls Cartons dead weight around to serve up him for some reason, and a reader wonder why Stryver does this. Stryver speaks of ambit ion and drive, and we can cl earlier see by comparison that Sydney has none. IT seems has no provide to live, but rather stays alive only for his next drink.We later see him wondering around town like a vagrant, stumbling back to his house in the early morning hours. We arrives there, Dickens poetically that he cries himself to sleep. This is where ones opinion of him first begins to chang... ...ding to this interpretation, the bright prophecies of better times ahead are basically Dickens track of copping out, of pleasing his audience with a hopeful ending. If Sydney Cartons motives seem complicated to you, try stepping back and viewing him as a man, rather than an influence on the story. Hes a complex, realistic character. We see him so clearly, working early morning hours on Stryvers business, padding between table and punch bowl in his headdress of sopping towels, that were able to feel for him. Have you ever known someone whos thrown away his talent or potential, yet retain s a spark of achievement, as good as peoples sympathy? Thats one way of looking at Sydney Carton. However you view him, though, is how Dickens meant it. He meant for his stories to be controversial and confusing he love it when his characters were complex and hard to understand. He felt he himself was this way, and made his characters modeled after him. But I know that after reading this book, I will check my first impressions and not really form too much of one before I see whats really going on. And the next time I meet someone, Ill remember that first impressions arent everything.

Wednesday, May 29, 2019

Solitude of the Garage :: Descriptive Essay About A Place

Solitude of the GarageI walked outside into the cool April morning. The distribute around me was a slightly stinging cold nevertheless, I took a big deep breath of the refreshing mountain air. I walked over to my soda waters inflammation and white 1979 Ford F150 pickup and started it for him. I brought it around to the front of the house, put the transmission in neutral, and set the parking brake. After hopping out of the cab, I met my dad coming out of the house, and went around the front of the truck. I hopped into the passenger seat while my dad got into the drivers seat. We fastened our seat belts and we headed absent to Paonia.I was looking for a new dirt ride, and I was going to Paonia to look at a 1990 Honda CR 125. I had owned three dirt bikes before, but I had change each one in order to buy another one with more power, and here I was again ready to buy my fourth.When we arrived at Jared Mortons house, the possessor of the bike, he already had the bike out. He was mak ing sure that the bike was in perfect shape for me to see. My dad parked the truck, and we both hopped out to discern Jared. We walked over to his garage, where the bike was located. I examined the bike and asked him questions about it, like how long he had had the bike and how often he had ridden it.The bike had a seat peak of 34 inches. The body of the bike was a dull orange color, with the frame being white. It had inverted racing forks that had fenders on them to protect them from dust and debris. The stock conduct bars were replaced with Renthal bars for more precise steering. The front tire was good, but the rear tire was a little worn down as if he had drove it on the pavement too much. The bikes exhaust had also been replaced with a FMH racing pipe. Jared did all these modifications to the bike because he had competed in races, and he needed the bike to be in excellent mechanical shape.After I was done looking at the bike, Jared got on it, gave it a couple of kick-starts, and it started right up. He got off and let me test-drive the bike.

Gambling in Baseball :: Essays Papers

Gambling in Baseball What has changed the way Americas pursual is looked at forever and prompt worldwide discussion? Joe Jackson and his seven teammates changed the face of baseball forever during the intimate scandalisation of 1919. No other term in baseball history did Americans question the state of the game. Pete Rose had also brought a debate like no other before in baseball. Since his banishment in 1989 the country has been split on the issue. Gambling by these men and others has caused great problems in baseball. The game of baseball has been destroyed by gambling. Gambling willing forever be a part of Americans pastime. As soon as the New York Knickerbockers organized in 1845 and started competing against other teams, spectators were dissipated on the outcome (Fleitz 190). In the mid 1800s, speculations of gambling had reached the news. Three men of the New York Mutuals were banned from baseball for taking $100 each to throw a game to t he Brooklyn Eckfords nevertheless, the men were reinstated within a few years (Rielly 110). The next few decades only had been occasionally marred by gambling scandals. The Black Sox scandal of 1919 rocked the sports world and brought up even more scandals. Baseballs gambling problems were not always bookies looking for that prized fight it sometimes involved the role models of the game. some(prenominal) owners had been linked to the 1919 scandal. Charles Stoneham of the Giants and Arnold Rothstein of the Dodgers were believed to play an important part of the scam (Lieb 189). Baseball slowly rid itself of gambling until the last big scandal hit in the notice of Rose. Gambling has been a part of baseball ever since the start and will continue to tarnish the game whenever it is brought up. Baseball has been through lots of adversity throughout the years. Strikes, wars and corruption have given the game a black eye but nothing has hurt the integrity of the game mor e than gambling. Having baseball compete honestly is the most important part of baseball and doubting the integrity can cause serious harm to the game.

Tuesday, May 28, 2019

Fetal Neural Transplantation in the Treatment of Parkinsons and Huntin

Two Diseases, One Hope Fetal Neural Transplantation in the Treatment of Parkinsons and Huntingtons DiseaseParkinsons Disease (PD) and Huntingtons Disease (HD) are neurodegenerative diseases that are caused by malfunctions within the motor sector of the nervous system. These malfunctions, which are caused any by the surplus (as in HD) or absence (as in PD) of hormones, are a direct result of neural cell deterioration within the mind. PD and HD illustrate two very divergent behavioral patterns that are subsequently caused by two opposite and extreme biological abnormalities. Yet the common recital between the two conditions is that there are major mechanical predicaments arising between cellular connections within the genius. Thus, it is the occurrence of cell death that functions as a get a line link between these two very assorted diseases. And it is because of this commonality, that the most controversial experimental treatment for PD and HD, fetal transplant surgery, function s as a manageable cure for both these diseases. (18). The cause of neurodegenerative diseases, like PD and HD, is basically a story of how abnormal chemical interactions result in motor problems. Generally speaking, the brain is the bodys communication headquarters. It obtains a myriad of information from various parts of the sensory system and processes this information in an organized fashion. It then relays sensory input to different parts of the motor system. Such messages from the brain dictate specific muscular and behavioral patterns. (18). Moreover, there are two particular areas of the brain that are specifically related to motor malfunctions the substania nigra and the striatum (the caudate nucleus and the putamen). The cells of the nigr... ...-lab.htm11. Neural Transplantation for Huntingtons Disease http//neuro-ww2.mgh.harvard.edu/hdsa/newresearch.nclk12. Neurosurgical Horizons in the Treatment of Huntingtons Disease http//www.lib.uchicago.edu//rd13/hd/horizons.html13. NeurotransplantationUs Latest Stab at Incurable Brain Disease http//www.lib.uchicago.edu/rd13/hd/neuro.html14. New Treatment Strategies http//www.bcm.edu/neurol/struct/hunting/huntp8.html15. The Striatal Project http//www.brc.cam.ac.uk/people/sbd/strgraft.htm16. What is Parkinsons? http//neuro-chief-e.mgh.harvard.edu/parkinsonsweb/Main/IntroPD/Intro.html17. Young Parkinsons Handbook http//neuro-chief-e.mgh.harvard.edu/parkinsonsweb/Main/YOPD_Handbook/CHAPTER_8.%20html disk 18. Delcomyn, Fred. 1998. Foundations of Neurobiology. New York W.H. Freeman and Company, pg. 436-437 Fetal Neural Transplantation in the Treatment of Parkinsons and HuntinTwo Diseases, One Hope Fetal Neural Transplantation in the Treatment of Parkinsons and Huntingtons DiseaseParkinsons Disease (PD) and Huntingtons Disease (HD) are neurodegenerative diseases that are caused by malfunctions within the motor sector of the nervous system. These malfunctions, which are caused each by the surplus (as in HD) or absence (as in PD) of hormones, are a direct result of neural cell deterioration within the brain. PD and HD illustrate two very different behavioral patterns that are subsequently caused by two opposite and extreme biological abnormalities. Yet the common sop up between the two conditions is that there are major mechanical predicaments arising between cellular connections within the brain. Thus, it is the occurrence of cell death that functions as a diagnose link between these two very different diseases. And it is because of this commonality, that the most controversial experimental treatment for PD and HD, fetal transplant surgery, functions as a feasible cure for both these diseases. (18). The cause of neurodegenerative diseases, like PD and HD, is basically a story of how abnormal chemical interactions result in motor problems. Generally speaking, the brain is the bodys communication headquarters. It obtains a myriad of information from various parts of the sensor y system and processes this information in an organized fashion. It then relays sensory input to different parts of the motor system. Such messages from the brain dictate specific muscular and behavioral patterns. (18). Moreover, there are two particular areas of the brain that are specifically related to motor malfunctions the substania nigra and the striatum (the caudate nucleus and the putamen). The cells of the nigr... ...-lab.htm11. Neural Transplantation for Huntingtons Disease http//neuro-ww2.mgh.harvard.edu/hdsa/newresearch.nclk12. Neurosurgical Horizons in the Treatment of Huntingtons Disease http//www.lib.uchicago.edu//rd13/hd/horizons.html13. NeurotransplantationUs Latest Stab at Incurable Brain Disease http//www.lib.uchicago.edu/rd13/hd/neuro.html14. New Treatment Strategies http//www.bcm.edu/neurol/struct/hunting/huntp8.html15. The Striatal Project http//www.brc.cam.ac.uk/people/sbd/strgraft.htm16. What is Parkinsons? http//neuro-chief-e.mgh.harvard.edu/parkinsonsweb/M ain/IntroPD/Intro.html17. Young Parkinsons Handbook http//neuro-chief-e.mgh.harvard.edu/parkinsonsweb/Main/YOPD_Handbook/CHAPTER_8.%20html account book 18. Delcomyn, Fred. 1998. Foundations of Neurobiology. New York W.H. Freeman and Company, pg. 436-437

Fetal Neural Transplantation in the Treatment of Parkinsons and Huntin

Two Diseases, One Hope Fetal uneasy Transplantation in the Treatment of paralysis agitans and Huntingtons Diseaseparalysis agitans Disease (PD) and Huntingtons Disease (HD) atomic number 18 neurodegenerative diseases that are caused by malfunctions within the motor sector of the nervous system. These malfunctions, which are caused either by the surplus (as in HD) or absence (as in PD) of hormones, are a direct result of neural cell deterioration within the outlook. PD and HD illustrate two rattling(prenominal) contrary behavioral patterns that are subsequently caused by two opposite and extreme biological abnormalities. Yet the common thread between the two conditions is that there are major mechanical predicaments arising between cellular connections within the foreland. Thus, it is the occurrence of cell death that functions as a key link between these two very diametric diseases. And it is because of this commonality, that the most controversial experimental treatment for PD and HD, fetal transplant surgery, functions as a possible cure for both these diseases. (18). The cause of neurodegenerative diseases, a same(p)(p) PD and HD, is basically a story of how abnormal chemical interactions result in motor problems. Generally speaking, the brain is the bodys communication headquarters. It obtains a myriad of discipline from various parts of the sensory system and processes this nurture in an organized fashion. It then relays sensory input to different parts of the motor system. Such messages from the brain dictate specific muscular and behavioral patterns. (18). Moreover, there are two particular areas of the brain that are specifically related to motor malfunctions the substania nigra and the striatum (the caudate nucleus and the putamen). The cells of the nigr... ...-lab.htm11. Neural Transplantation for Huntingtons Disease http//neuro-ww2.mgh.harvard.edu/hdsa/newresearch.nclk12. Neurosurgical Horizons in the Treatment of Huntingtons Disease h ttp//www.lib.uchicago.edu//rd13/hd/horizons.html13. NeurotransplantationUs Latest Stab at Incurable Brain Disease http//www.lib.uchicago.edu/rd13/hd/neuro.html14. advanced Treatment Strategies http//www.bcm.edu/neurol/struct/hunting/huntp8.html15. The Striatal Project http//www.brc.cam.ac.uk/people/sbd/strgraft.htm16. What is Parkinsons? http//neuro-chief-e.mgh.harvard.edu/parkinsonsweb/Main/IntroPD/Intro.html17. Young Parkinsons Handbook http//neuro-chief-e.mgh.harvard.edu/parkinsonsweb/Main/YOPD_Handbook/CHAPTER_8.%20htmlBook 18. Delcomyn, Fred. 1998. Foundations of Neurobiology. saucy York W.H. Freeman and Company, pg. 436-437 Fetal Neural Transplantation in the Treatment of Parkinsons and HuntinTwo Diseases, One Hope Fetal Neural Transplantation in the Treatment of Parkinsons and Huntingtons DiseaseParkinsons Disease (PD) and Huntingtons Disease (HD) are neurodegenerative diseases that are caused by malfunctions within the motor sector of the nervous system. Th ese malfunctions, which are caused either by the surplus (as in HD) or absence (as in PD) of hormones, are a direct result of neural cell deterioration within the brain. PD and HD illustrate two very different behavioral patterns that are subsequently caused by two opposite and extreme biological abnormalities. Yet the common thread between the two conditions is that there are major mechanical predicaments arising between cellular connections within the brain. Thus, it is the occurrence of cell death that functions as a key link between these two very different diseases. And it is because of this commonality, that the most controversial experimental treatment for PD and HD, fetal transplant surgery, functions as a possible cure for both these diseases. (18). The cause of neurodegenerative diseases, like PD and HD, is basically a story of how abnormal chemical interactions result in motor problems. Generally speaking, the brain is the bodys communication headquarters. It obtains a my riad of information from various parts of the sensory system and processes this information in an organized fashion. It then relays sensory input to different parts of the motor system. Such messages from the brain dictate specific muscular and behavioral patterns. (18). Moreover, there are two particular areas of the brain that are specifically related to motor malfunctions the substania nigra and the striatum (the caudate nucleus and the putamen). The cells of the nigr... ...-lab.htm11. Neural Transplantation for Huntingtons Disease http//neuro-ww2.mgh.harvard.edu/hdsa/newresearch.nclk12. Neurosurgical Horizons in the Treatment of Huntingtons Disease http//www.lib.uchicago.edu//rd13/hd/horizons.html13. NeurotransplantationUs Latest Stab at Incurable Brain Disease http//www.lib.uchicago.edu/rd13/hd/neuro.html14. New Treatment Strategies http//www.bcm.edu/neurol/struct/hunting/huntp8.html15. The Striatal Project http//www.brc.cam.ac.uk/people/sbd/strgraft.htm16. What is Parkinsons? http//neuro-chief-e.mgh.harvard.edu/parkinsonsweb/Main/IntroPD/Intro.html17. Young Parkinsons Handbook http//neuro-chief-e.mgh.harvard.edu/parkinsonsweb/Main/YOPD_Handbook/CHAPTER_8.%20htmlBook 18. Delcomyn, Fred. 1998. Foundations of Neurobiology. New York W.H. Freeman and Company, pg. 436-437

Monday, May 27, 2019

‘Hide and Seek’ by Vernon Scannell and ‘Half-past Two’ by U. A. Fanthorpe Essay

pass over and undertake c formerlyrns a boy hiding cautiously whilst playing hide and seek with his peers. Gradually, he realises he has been cast unwraped, and fear overcomes him overdue to being isolated in the dark surroundings. The notation is incredibly certain and positive at the beginning. However, his confidence gradually fades away as the realisation of his desertion occurs. The mood is analogous to the tone. At first, we can sense the excitement. This modifies to anxiety and nervousness towards the end. The poet make use ofs language features to portray the tone. On the first suck up, exclamation marks be employ to show the enthusiasm of the boy. Scannell uses personification and the senses to describe the surrounding atmosphere in a vivid way. Therefore, the reader gets a cle atomic number 18r image. Occasional rhyme is used to rack up a sense of rhythm to the verse.The poem is one continuous stanza. It is kindred dramatic soliloquy in that it defecates cha racter, but it is actually second person. The structure emphasises the impermissible length of waiting clock prison term. The adult speaks to his puerility self in second person, explaining feeling and thoughts. There are short sentences to build up tension and create stillness. The themes explored in Hide and hear are kidhood experiences, reflection, isolation and abandonment. These themes are also explored in Half- past both. This poem also explores various separate themes such as time restriction and criticism of teaching methods.Half-past two is just about a child who has been naughty. The punishment given by his teacher is to vex in the room until half- past two. She exits that she hasnt taught him time. He only understands his routines and throughout the poem we see how the child go outs time because he doesnt know it. The poet uses tone and language methods to portray the way the child is treated. The mood for the majority of the poem is quite dreamy and we get t he feeling that the boy is confused. In terms of language, personification is used effectively to show the childs view of time.The use of senses creates the surrounding atmosphere like in the previous poem, Hide and hear. enhance words are used to show the routines of the boy and the only time concepts he understands. Rhythm is produced by the repetition of compound words and by the feature that they are said in a childs sing- song voice. Half-past two is divided into eleven three lines stanzas. Irony is expressed through the organised structure, as it contrasts with the boys feelings.In Hide and Seek the child is hiding carefully, checking feet arent sticking out, and taking precautions such as not risking another(prenominal) shout. Gradually, we realise his friends have purposely abandoned him, but the child is very naive and thinks he is the winner. He realises in the darkening garden that he has been neglected.The poem is written in second person. Theyll never find you in t his salty dark. This gives us the impression that the narrator is an adult looking back on the experience.The senses are used in order to describe the surrounding atmosphere in a more vivid way. The sacks in the tool shed smell like the seaside. Scannell also uses personification, which causes us to imagine how the child is feeling at that dieicular point. The cold bites through your coat. Personification is effective at portraying the childs feelings as it is easier for us to understand something if it is described to us in a more physical way. The majority of personification is used towards the end to give a sense of foreboding. The darkening garden watching emphasises his isolation in a scary place whereas the bushes hold their breath can show what the child whitethorn be doing because he is scared. In extreme circumstances when people are very scared, they hold their breath without knowing.Scannell applies punctuation to portray the tone and mood of the poem. Im ready Come and find me The exclamation marks highlight the excitement of the child. We detect a positive attitude and certainty due to the use of the imperative rather than taking orders. A question is used at the end to portray the uncertain and anxious emotions the child is feeling. But where are they who sought-after(a) you? This is the voice of the adult reflecting on a bitter experience. It is symbolic that the poem begins with the imperative and exclamation marks and conspicuously ends with confusion and question marks. It emphasises the gradual diversity from having a positive attitude to realisation of isolation.An alternative point that proves that the mood is positive at the beginningis that the child compares the current situation to a typical, quick-witted one the majority of childrens experience. The sacks in the tool shed smell like the seaside. This gives the impression of a dazzling, sunny beach with a lot of expert children playing without constraints and restriction. This is i ronic as the child is isolated in a dark, begrimed place with restricted space.The poem is one continuous stanza. The dramatic monologue symbolizes the unbearable length of waiting time. The character is speaking directly to us, explaining his different feelings and thoughts. The poem can be divided into two parts. They are positivity and certainty, and electronegativity and realisation. The first line of the second part is, it seems a long time since they went away. Previously, the child attempts to convince himself they are still looking for him. They must be thinking youre very clever. The effect of this is to emphasise the naivety and innocence of the child. For the majority of the poem, the child is positive, but only for a minority is he negative. This can accent the fact a child may spend more time with fallacious ideas than in actual reality.Short sentences are used to build up tension. Dont breathe. Dont move. Stay dumb. These sentences are said slower than the rest of t he poem, creating a tense stillness. The pace slows down.Occasional rhyme is march in Hide and Seek. Out, shout, coat, throat. A sense of rhythm is added to the poem.I think there are four main themes explored in the poem childhood memories, isolation, abandonment, feeling unwanted and reflection.Reflection and childhood memories can be connected as the whole poem is about an adult reflecting on a childhood memory. This is proven by the fact that the whole of the poem is written in second person. Youve never heard them sound so hushed before. This is more personal than using he or him.Isolation is another theme. The innocent child doesnt think so, but for thewhole of the poem, he is alone. In the positive part of the poem, he believes that his friends are outside, but close to him. Theyre moving closer, someone stumbles, mutters The child believes his friends are so close, he can even hear theyre discreet actions, usually unnoticeable. Like the last theme, it emphasises the naivety and innocence of the boy. An alternative point to verify that the boy is in isolation is the fact that he is in the darkening garden as he emerges from the tool shed.There is emphasis on the amount of darkness in his surroundings. This can be interpreted as a symbol of loneliness. This brings about fear, especially in young children. The fact that the sun is gone is another symbol for darkness being present. For children, the sun and chic are indications of happiness and contentment within a group.The theme of abandonment can be associated with isolation because he is alone. It is clear to us that his friends purposefully abandon the boy. Their words and laughter scuffle, and theyre gone. We realise this a considerable time before the boy does. This emphasises that most of the time, children are left in the dark, and elders know beforehand. tonicity unwanted is another major theme of Hide and Seek. This is how the child feels when the realisation of his abandonment occurs to him. Yes, here you are. But where are they who sought you? It is likely that the child feels his peers abandoned him because they do not like him. This action and the subsequent emotion are common with children. The child is left confused thinking that there is something misemploy with them. I can tell by the bitterness of the adults tone that this is how the child feels. Youre legs are stiff, the cold bites through your coat. He is trying to show that all the pain he went through was not worth it because he was unwanted.Similarly to Hide and Seek, Half- past dickens is about a young child. He has done something naughty in school and is told by his teacher to stay in the room until Half- past Two. In her rush, she forgets that She hadnt taught him Time. The only time concepts he is aware of and understands are daily routines such as Gettinguptime, Timeyouwereofftime. Whilstwaiting, he escapes into a clockless drop off out of reach of all the timefors. The teacher returns, slots him b ack into school time and tells him to leave, or else hell be late.Contrasting with Hide and Seek, Half- past Two is written in third person. He did Something Very Wrong. I think the narrator is the adult looking back on a childhood experience. The poet doesnt make it very obvious by using first person, or second person like Hide and Seek.Fanthorpe uses personification to portray the childs view of the clock. The little eyes, and two long legs for walking. This view is a childs typical perception and establishes how naive a child can be, a comparison to Hide and Seek. Personification is used further when Fanthorpe uses the pun, He couldnt click its language. She is progressing further from the point that a child views a clock as a liveliness object. A clock produces a ticking noise. To the child, this is how it talks. The pun stresses the point that he cant understand a clock, and therefore time. Personification is used in Hide and Seek, but for different purposes. It is to give a cl earer image, rather than show a childs perception of an object.A comparison to Hide and Seek concerning language is that the senses create a clearer atmosphere for the reader. The smell of old chrysanthemums on Her desk. Another reason for the use of senses differing from Hide and Seek at this special(a) point is to show how people, especially children notice insignificant things when they are alone. Their concentration increases due to minimal distraction. Into the silent noise his hangnail made. The senses are used when he escapes into the clockless land of ever.A significant stanza of the poem is where she slotted him back into schooltime. An image of this is created in our minds of a mechanical action. It is as if he is being taken out of one zone and put back into another instantly. The alliteration on this line causes the poem to be more rhythmic.Subsequent to escaping the deathless world, the teachers words are initalics. I forgot all about you. I think this is to make her lines prominent. These lines are important because they emphasise the fact that the child was neglected. merge words are used to portray the childs routines, the only time concepts he understands. Gettinguptime, timeyouwereofftime, timetogohomenowtime. I think his parents and other carers in his life vocalise these. The repetition of compound words creates a sense of rhythm. They seem to be said in a sing- song tone, emphasising the patronizing tone to the child because of his age. A patronizing tone is used previously towards the boy. He did Something Very Wrong. The title case states the words that are emphasised. She thinks that if she uses a normal tone, the message wont get through to him.In the last stanza, we can sense the wistful tone of the narrator. Where time hides tick- less waiting to be born. He wishes he could escape into this land where he isnt restricted by time, like most adults. The narrator shows bitterness by using a satirical and sarcastic tone. (I forget what it was.) This mocks the teacher by trying to show that she was making a big deal out of something insignificant.The mood in the poem is dreamy, especially when the boy escapes into the timeless zone. Beyond onceupona. The mood emphasises his confusion by the unfamiliar concept of time. The dreamy mood is also indicated by the fairytale references. Once upon a schooltime. The word time is substituted for alternative words or none at all. Not only do fairytale references portray the mood, but also the fact that fairytales are young and contain fantasy aspects. The moods in Half- past Two are a contrast to the mood in Hide and Seek.The poem is divided into eleven three-line stanzas, showing organisation. Irony is expressed through the organised structure, as it contrasts with the boys feelings.This is a very noticeable contrast to the structure of Hide and Seek. Afurther distinction is that occasional brackets are used in Half- past Two as opposed to none in Hide and Seek. One stanz a is dedicated to criticizing teaching methods and sarcastically mocking her. (Being cross, shed forgotten she hadnt taught him Time. He was too scared of being wicked to remind her.) The brackets typify the insignificance of the teachers actions.The themes explored in Half- past Two that are also explored in Hide and Seek are childhood memories, isolation, abandonment and reflection. Also, restriction of time and freedom of childhood.Like in Hide and Seek, the themes of childhood memories and reflection can be closely tied together because in my view, the poem is about an adult looking back on a childhood experience. Unlike Hide and Seek, this isnt indicated by the use of second person as the poem is written in third person, a less personal approach. It is indicated by the tone in the final stanza. But he never forgot how once by not knowing time The tone is pensive and regretful. The adult wishes he had the power to escape into the clockless land of ever. This brings me to my nex t point that restriction by time is a theme explored in Half- past Two, but not Hide and Seek. The last stanza is the adult reflecting. He escaped into the clockless land of ever, where time hides tick- less waiting to be born. The quote emphasises the fact that an innocent child isnt restricted by time as opposed to adults.An additional theme is isolation. Contrary to Hide and Seek, the child is aware of his isolation, but confused at how to escape it. So he waited His child like qualities are emphasised by the fact that he needs an older responsible figure to help and guide him. Abandonment, another theme, occurs when his teacher as opposed to friends in Hide and Seek deserts the child. In both poems, the child is abandoned, but the teacher and the friends have different intentions. The friends do it as a joke and brook the child will find his way back, whereas the teacher ignored and forgot the boy. Stay in the schoolroom till half- past two.In conclusion, I think the differenc es outbalance the similarities. An important similarity is that both are about adults reflecting on childhood experiences. In Hide and Seek, the adult is regretful and despises the experience, whereas in Half- past Two, the adult wishes he could relive the experience. Another difference is the structures of both poems. Hide and Seek is one continuous stanza, whereas Half- past Two consists of eleven three line stanzas. Regarding language, both poems use personification and senses to vividly describe the surrounding atmosphere. Unlike Half- past Two, Hide and Seek uses punctuation to portray the change in tone and mood. Regarding themes, all themes explored in Hide and Seek are explored in Half- past Two as well as more. A noticeable difference is the content of both poems. The experiences are totally different as are the reactions and personal opinions of them.I enjoyed reading Hide and Seek more than Half- past Two. This is because I thought Hide and Seek was more effective at viv idly portraying the experience. In Half- past Two, it was harder to get a delve of the content and symbolism within the poem.

Sunday, May 26, 2019

Logical and Physical Network Design

Introduction This paper presents a brief overview of what goes into a redevelopment take aim placement (SLA) contract. It also presents an example of matchless. Contents This publication contains the following topics Topic Why Have serve Level Agreements? pay back Areas to Consider Contract Components Example Of A avail Level Agreement Contract See Page 2 3 6 8 -1- Why Have receipts Level Agreements? Rationale SLAs are critical towards formalizing expectations around emoluments with end users and guests. Without these, customer expectations forget assume that everything leave be delivered and available at a 100% level either the time.Very little can be done about poor assistance when there is no definition what good avail is. Objectives should be set that take out items such as reception generation, availability, turnaround and accuracy. guests and IT should commit to a mutually acceptable means of verifying compliance with process objectives and agree on actions that must take place when exceptions occur. Key Goals Key goals of undertaking formalized help arrangements are as follows Allow for IT to understand customer helper requirements. Control customer expectations for levels of service of process to be delivered. Allow for clear understanding of priorities when handling service problems. -2- Contract Areas to Consider Overview The following section presents a number of key areas to consider when building SLA Contract documents. Level of Formalization Service levels may range from a formalized contract that is signed despatch by representative customer departments to informal known levels internal to IT functions. IT should be aware which level of formalization is appropriate. Ability to Meet Service Targets IT should ensure that enter levels of service can indeed be met.Targets should allow for a latitude contingency to cover occasional problems or slowdowns to occur without jeopardizing targets. Within ITIL, Availability focal point should review planned targets and provide guidance as to what levels may be appropriate given current IT capabilities. Requirements for clean capabilities should be highlighted to management to determine whether to entrust in them or not. Control of Customer Expectations Targets should be communicated to customers in terms that make them clearly understood from their perspective. This promotes a good level of understanding and cooperation when service problems do occur.Handling SLA Contract channel overs Processes should be in place to handle changes in service requirements. Customers may wish to negotiate better service levels, add new functions that require new levels of service or periodically renew current levels. These should be negotiated through a Service Level Manager and processed via Change Management. routine of SLA Contracts Less is better, more greatly increases management overhead to report and manage. It may be determined to energise a single contract for all departments versus multiple service contracts for different departments.An otherwise structure may be to have a base concord that covers everyone as a default with a check set of overriding contracts for unique needs. Continued on next page -3- Contract Areas to Consider, Continued Types of Service Targets to Be Included The types of service targets to be provided should be identified in the service level contract. Examples of types of service targets include items such as Response Times Availability Windows Equipment Service And Repair Times practiced Support Response and Level Report Or Other Media Delivery Security Access Data Retention and Backup RequirementsDetermining Customer Services It leave behind be necessary to get wind what critical customer workloads are. From this a specific service level can be derived. Workloads can be defined as one or more customer functions that require service from IT. Examples of these might include items such as touch on pati ent accounts in a hospital. entrance orders from customers on a phone. Accessing E-Mail. Retrieving and creating memos. Each of the above have an associated level of service that allows that function to be accomplished successfully.This level might include availability of service to that function. (i. E-Mail will be available from 8AM to 9PM on weekdays). It might also include a level of response. (i. e Order Entry transactions on a terminal must provide a response time less than 5 seconds 85% of the time). Most organizations have found it helpful to enforce an ITIL Service Catalog to better define what these services are. With this, the SLA contract would only need to reference those service descriptions. The Catalog can also serve to reduce all of these definitions in one place. Multiple Targets For Services It may desired to provide or negotiate multiple service levels for a single customer service.An example of this might be negotiating a lower response time for peak hour s of the day and a higher response time at other hours. Another example might be provision of high availability all the time but specific functions or files may be untouchable at certain times of the day. Continued on next page -4- Contract Areas to Consider, Continued Resolution of Service Dis dedicatees It may be desired to put a process in place that fairly identifies resolutions to problems or misunderstandings in service expectations. This may be a committee of representative Customer and IT effect without a direct interest in the problems under discussion.Operational Level Agreements and Underpinning Contracts In an environment where the service to be delivered is provided by multiple departments, organizations or outside vendors, service boundaries must be clearly defined. This identifies where responsibilities lie and what kinds of services have to be delivered by each service delivery entity. An example of this might include a client/server architected application where e nd user response time service consists of both mainframe processing and server/front-end processing. If these two components are managed by ifferent organizations, then each organization should set up an operational level engagement.As an example of the above, mainframe response time targets will be under 5 seconds 85% of the time, server processing will be under 3 seconds 80% of the time. This would result in the actual service level to the customer of a response time less than 8 seconds 80% of the time. Service Targets Must Be Reportable Any service level that is set must be able to be adequately reported on. It would be useless to establish a service level for which monitoring data cannot be collected.The operational efforts and be involved with monitoring and reporting on any given service level should be taken into account when that level is set. -5- Contract Components Overview A Service Level Contract is a key component of a formalized service level agreement process. Key c omponents of this document are described in this section. Contract Dates Starting and ending dates that the contract is to be in force. If ending dates are specified, new service level agreements may have to be created for projects or departments that function beyond the end dates. Contract NumbersThese may be necessary if negotiating multiple contracts. They simply identify specific contracts. Customer Identification Identifying information that describes the pigeonholing of users who are included inwardly the scope of the contract. Demand catamenias It is helpful to identify periods of time in which types of use are likely to make the greatest service demands on processing resources. Some targets may differ depending on demand periods. For example, an E-Mail service may have a lesser target for response time during the start of work when most employees retrieve their messages.There may be a higher target for slower periods later in the day. Project or Departmental Description A brief description of the department or project to be serviced. This may include its main purpose or worry function and how processing frequents the goals of that entity. Expected Service Requirements A description in clear concise terms of the service level targets to be delivered by IT to support the department(s) or project(s) covered by the service contract. These should be in business terms and from the customer perspective as much as possible. Continued on next page -6-Contract Components, Continued Service Assumptions If needed, this section can be included to describe any service assumptions used to support the service levels universe delivered. Examples might include A set number of customer users not to be exceeded Specific IT capacities that might incur additional costs if exceeded Allowances for special times of the day, week, month or year Target Calculations Methodologies or calculations used to determine service expectations should be documented. The purpose is to clearly state how service levels may be calculated, measured and reported on.IT Charging Costs Any assumptions or expected costs of delivering the service should also be documented. Determination of costs is aided by the mental object Planning and Financial Management processes. In some cases, it may be necessary to include a sample charging bill. Contract Maintenance This section should describe the conditions under which the contract should be changed. It should identify who is responsible for reporting on the quality of service delivered and how service disputes may be resolved. Contract ResponsibilitiesThis section should identify organizations or force responsible for support activities related to Contract Maintenance, Service Level Reporting, Service Level Dispute Resolution and Renegotiation of Service Levels. Signature period This section provides space for Customer and IT sign-off to the terms in the contract. -7- Example Of A Service Level Agreement Contract Introduc tion The following pages present one example of a comprehensive Service Level Agreement contract. This example is probably much more formalized than necessary but illustrates some of the concepts discussed in this paper. Continued on next page 8- Example Of A Service Level Agreement Contract, Continued SERVICE LEVEL AGREEMENTContract Date Agreement Number Division Location Project Peak Times Expiration Date This document with attachments specifies the agreement between the above named business unit and the Data Processing Center (DPC) for shared computing services. This agreement consists of the following sections Section I Section II Section III Section IV Section V Section VI Services To Be Provided Expected Service Requirements Service Assumptions Costs Contract Maintenance DPC Responsibilities Section VI Section VIICustomer Responsibilities Service Change Control Procedure Section VIII Signatures -9- Continued on next page 10 Example Of A Service Level Agreement Contract, Cont inued SECTION I SERVICES TO BE PROVIDED Business Unit Description, Business Unit Scope And Desired Services to be provided. may provide references to ITIL Service Catalog here. SECTION II EXPECTED SERVICE REQUIREMENTS Examples (May list for each service to be provided or reference ITIL Service Catalog) Response Time Requirements Availability Requirements Report/Media Delivery Requirements Data Retention and Back-Up RequirementsTechnical Support Requirements Job/Report Turnaround Requirements Security Requirements Continued on next page 11 Example Of A Service Level Agreement Contract, Continued SECTION III SERVICE ASSUMPTIONS The services and costs within this agreement are based on the assumptions below. Any assumption found invalid could have an effect on ability to meet service targets and/or costs charged for services. Changes to assumptions will be handled in accordance with the Service Change Control Procedure described in this agreement. The service assumptions included wi th this agreement are SECTION IV COSTSCOST FACTOR RULE AND CHARGES APPLIED - Anticipated Costs Per Period -Period 1 Period 2 Period 3 Period 4 Continued on next page 12 Example Of A Service Level Agreement Contract, Continued SECTION V contain MAINTENANCE Terms for Renegotiation Penalties/Rewards Service Level Reporting Responsibilities Service Problem Resolution Responsibilities Continued on next page 13 Example Of A Service Level Agreement Contract, Continued SECTION VI DPC RESPONSIBILITIES DPC will provide IT Service Management to control the services described in this agreement.DPC will appoint a Service Manager who will have responsibility for Coordinating DPC activities and responsibilities to address any service issues that may arise. Interfacing with the customer Service dawn for service issues and requests for service changes. With the customer Service Contact, administer the Service Change Control Procedure described in this agreement. Delivering service reports to t he customer Service Contact. defend service communications and reviewing any service improvement actions and progress with the customer Service Contact during execution of this agreement on a regular basis.Continued on next page 14 Example Of A Service Level Agreement Contract, Continued SECTION VI CUSTOMER RESPONSIBILITIES This section identifies the customer responsibilities associated with this agreement. DPCs performance is predicated upon the responsibilities identified below. Prior to the start of this agreement, customer will designate a person, called the Service Contact to whom all DPC communications will be communicate and who has the authority to act for customer in all aspects of this agreement.The responsibilities of the Customer Contact include Serve as the interface between DPC and all customer departments dynamic included in the scope of this contract. With the DPC Service Manager, administer the Service Change Control Procedure as described in Section VII of thi s agreement. project service status meetings. Obtain and provide information, data, decisions and approvals, within 3 working days of DPCs request unless DPC and the customer agree to an extended response time. Resolve deviations from service assumptions which may be caused by customer.Help resolve service issues and escalate issues within customers organization, as necessary. The following responsibilities by appropriate customer personnel involved in this project are as follows Continued on next page 15 Example Of A Service Level Agreement Contract, Continued SECTION VII SERVICE CHANGE CONTROL PROCEDURE The following provides a detailed process to follow if a change to this agreement is required A Request For Change (RFC) will be the vehicle for communicating change.The RFC must describe the change, the rationale for the change and the effect the change will have on the services. The designated contact of the requesting party will review the proposed change and determine whethe r to submit the request to the other party. The receiving contact will review the proposed change and approve it for further investigation or reject it within three (3) working days. The investigation will determine the effect that the implementation of the RFC will have on service targets, service charges and service assumptions related to this agreement.

Saturday, May 25, 2019

Mechanical man: John Broadus Watson and the beginnings of behaviorism Essay

All through history, upbringing and philosophy have derive out as ever-evolving pieces of disciplines that are not besides inter bonded, but also drivers of each(prenominal) otherwise. This is because education involves the mold of passing down in lineation from one attestant to some other person who will receive it. The mood the friendship or piece of information by the recipient or learner and the informant or teacher, forms the key features of the surgical mathematical operation of education and its overall effect on the society. In addition, there is evidence of numerous factions of educational disciplines that exist in the field and each requires a particular way or method of doing things. Natural sciences, biological sciences, social sciences, pieceities and many other areas of educational discipline that split from the mainstream disciplines as tumefy as those that are discovered on a day to day basis in the continued development of ways to not only make educa tion much easier, but also make the underlying mental and fashional constructions.On the other hand, without philosophy, it is arguably deducible that education and learning would not be in existences today. Practically, education and learning is one of the most important aspects of human life whose absence is an imagin able-bodied. Apparently, it is the historical and the proceeding developments and transformations of the philosophic concepts that spring the kind of processes, developments as well as out sustains involved in education.The link between education, theories and philosophiesIt is in this light that the study of the concepts of structuralism, constructivism, functionalism and the modern behaviorism and cognitivism leads to the understanding that these philosophical as well as empirical studies on educational and learning concepts brings about the result that there has been a progressive development and logical grade of events in the philosophies which in turn end up bringing about a difference in the understanding of the elements of learning in educations.As such, this typography seeks to look deep into the rudimentary definitions, concepts and effects of the cognitivism, behaviorism and constructivism. The process of this in-depth analysis is based on the basic players involved and the experiments that have been conducted as well as the other ones, which have the potential to prove the association of the elements. From the historical arenas of education processes to the modern conduction of education of various disciplines including aviation, it is possible for a well-crafted idea, full of logical data and logical relations and linking can be presented to bring about the achievement of this objective. In the end, it will be a requirement to join the dots that link these three concepts in such a way that the timeline and concept of use be made evident. With a broad look at each of the issues, the motif seeks to delve into the development and thus, delve into the proof that all these philosophies strike about as a way of filling a loophole found in another or as a complimentary form of mitigation (Buckley, 1989).BehaviorismPrior to delving into the aspect of behaviorism, it is important to get in touch with the events and concepts that were developed way before this concept and how they have had an entice on the speed as well as the stepping stones for the procession to the eventual use of behaviorism as a way of discerning what happens and goes on in the learning and development process in education. The concepts of structuralism and functionalism have come out as cosmos the let on movers and shakers in this process (Kitchener & ODonohue, 1999). For instance, the schools of eyeshot bring out issues that are different but complimentary to each other such that one phenomenon in one is explained or illustrated by a concept in another. Structuralism is based on the basic nature of all that is in existence and how the basic and smallest particles of material such as atoms act in order to create a particular effect. In psychology therefore, this concept is used as a way of finding and understanding the internal processes of the mind as a way of knowing the human mental processes from the structural point of view. Functionalism, on the other hand, is a concept that seeks to come out with the principles of understanding the functional aspect of consciousness away from the structural perspective (Watson, 2008).It is from the foundations of the philosophers of the past who came up with experiments and concepts of structuralism and functionalism that the thought process process of creating behaviorism concepts. Having been first brought forth by the John Watson in the early 1900s, a plethora of written materials supported the idea that the study of behavior with a concentration on the extents to which the processes of actions and response come about are can be used to understand such concepts as those that influence human behavior (Kitchener & ODonohue, 1999). Basically, this concept has its key focus on the two-way understanding of the multifaceted relation between a stimulus and a rejoinder to it. It is the endeavor of a good psychologist to understand how a stimulus, which is a specific action, event, or sensation that an organism is subjected to, the response on the individual. On the other hand, for the reaction or response of the subject, it should be possible to understand type, or better still, the specific stimulus that is responsible for the response (Buckley, 1989).As a consequence of this, other affiliates and sub-branches of the conditioning and classical conditioning have come up as a result of myriads of empirical experiments. Thus, as Watson puts it, in a particular environments, well placed conditioned training as well as the little regard to phylogeny or potential, any individual organism is capable of worthy what they are expected, trained or conditione d to be (Watson, 2008).CognitionismWhereas the concepts and principles of behaviorism have been used for a long time to come up with an understanding of the underlying and deep-seated issues in learning processes, there was need to understand the process of learning with the point of view that emanates from the study of the thought process, information processing and function as well as the effects on learning. As such, from the early times of scientific and philosophical propositions, it is noted that the search of the understanding of the learning process is spotted with a spectra of footprints of scientists and scholars (Jahnke & Nowaczyk, 1998). Though they use a mixture of various earlier concepts, Charles Darwins evolution theory states that from the onset of existence of life, organisms have deceased through changes within and without their species in a bid to participate equivalently in the competitive world of the survival for the retardtest as well as Deweys sacred app roach tend to agree on one thing that organisms and human beings undergo gradual development and depending on the environment, there are possible modifications that come about in order for the organism to better live in their environments. It is for this reason that all eyes then focused into the exploring the key influencer of consciousness and thought as well as the varying effects that come from it (Shettleworth, 2010). Through a number of experiments, it was found that the though process and what affects it, play an important business office in determining the learning ability, process and outcomes involved. Apparently, in as much as structuralism and functionalism come close to helping understand the internal process of learning they are just basic foundations and stepping stones towards the understanding of behavioural, cognitive as well as constructivism. This means that even though Watson puts it across that through behavioral condition in a suitable environment, one can b ecome whatever they are conditioned to be by learning, there are a few variations that can only be explained via the understanding of cognitive processes. Basically, it is a known fact that performance in assessment procedures and tests come out otherwise for different people. This is because there are a difference in the cognitive aspect of learning that is manifested in the motivation, age and level of intelligence, personality and other traits that influence an individuals ability to learn. It is also of importance in the understanding of the processes that bring about the differences between the reflective and the impulsive persons as well as turning the stones covering the facts about crystallized and liquid intelligence. One of the most outstanding aspects of cognitivism is the fact that it is related to treatment and not stimuli as in behavioral models. As such, visual effects in learning process, signs, classroom structure, motivation and teaching methods are among the fact ors to consider when the subject is under study for the cognitive aspect of learning (Jahnke & Nowaczyk, 1998).ConstructivismNotably observed as one of the most dominant forms of education theories that the modern arena of education is based, is presents itself as the latest used form of model by many. Constructivism is defined as the ability of the student or the learner to perceive a new piece of information, store it in the remembrance and add it to the already existing information in the memory such that the end result is a learning process that is composed of a knowledge based on various building blocks acquired over time. The student, having gone through experiences, read or learnt about the information prior to the current information learnt, is able to add up or relate the piece of information, makes a connection and derives a meaning or conclusion from it. As such, this method is seen as being one that links both the processes of learning involving practical and theory. Th rough this, it is much possible to the learner than ever before, for the learner to fulfill the main role of education to make a meaning of life and the thing that surround the human race (Shettleworth, 2010).Application in the aviation industryLogical reasoning and actions that come as a result are of great importance in every working or professional environment. It is important to note that, some more than others, workforce environments require great precision, stability of the mind as well as accuracy of thought in the bid to bring about refined completion of tasks or assignment. The aviation industry is one of such fields of work, which need great and well-regarded ways of doing things that will come out as manifestly efficient and effective. It is for this reason that all involved in this process from their time of training and learning need to be percolated in terms of ability and mental acuity (Reed, 2007). Once this is done, all should be subjected to the widely ranging l earning processes that are based on the models mentioned above. Through studying of the learning process with regard to behavior, spatial skills, interpersonal intelligence, intrapersonal intelligence, ability to link pieces of information and fix a problem in the shortest time possible, it is possible to come out with fully baked military group for the field of work. Even though these methods of evaluating learning processes act as complimentary aspects of the others, it is important to note that many situations vary with what they demand from the person in charge. For this reason, obedience of the learning subject to each of them before evaluation of the ability to use all in combination is a vital idea for the potential staff office for the aviation industry. Moreover, it is through these educationally proven processes that ones abilities, limitations can be determined, and recommendations made as to the kind of departments in which one is able to fit in. Generally, these educ ational theories and philosophies have logically evolved over time in a bid to bring about advancements in the field of education and learning process (Reed, 2007).ReferencesBuckley, K. W. (1989).Mechanical man John Broadus Watson and the beginnings of behaviorism. New York Guilford Press.Jahnke, J. C., & Nowaczyk, R. H. (1998).Cognition. Upper Saddle River, N.J Prentice-Hall.ODonohue, W. T., & Kitchener, R. F. (1999).Handbook of behaviorism. San Diego, Calif Academic Press.Reed, S. K. (2007).Cognition Theory and applications. Australia Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.Shettleworth, S. J. (2010).Cognition, evolution, and behavior. Oxford Oxford University Press.Watson, J. B. (2008).Behaviorism. Tucson, Ariz West Press.

Friday, May 24, 2019

Change Management – A review

The de shapeinants and Impediments of salmagundi In each branch of change concern accommodate been considered and addressed. Some elements f entirely outside the cathode-ray oscilloscope of the literature review and research. The literature review is structured in such a way that echoes this integrating as illustrated in the following diagram ( embodiment M). Figure XX Areas at heart and outside the research boundaries leading to governing bodyal antiphonaryness to change. Figure XX Areas within and outside the research boundaries leading to organisational responsiveness to change. People Management Leadership agnise-upal Context.Culture. Organizational Learning. association Management. turn Management. transmit Management Change Management is neither an art nor a science it is an soul butt relying solely on the placement, singulars within the organization (employees), leading style and direction of the organization (middle and top managers), organizational cultur e, and a variety of orthogonal Influences Including environmental, technological and complaisant. The scope for change pointing within an organization to fail is huge however the scope for military posture is as wide if cominged logistically.It is important to keep in straits that change management is not an art or a science tho each knowledge base and issue of change management is completely individualistic. Many conveynings drive indite and researched within the academic atomic number 18a of change application, and how it piece of assnister be applied strategically to assist the organization. The work that these conditions within the field of change management bring to the academic discussion have been studied, analyses, criticized and presented here(predicate) in an strive to both(prenominal) inform the reader and allow the research and subsequent analysis.Organizational Dynamics trunks Theory The image of the organization is not abstract from the idea of s ystems opening. The organization exists within an environment, has Inputs (l), Processes (P) and Outputs (O) pickings into account both formal and unceremonial subsystems and processes. Combined together this presents a system that is both effective and theoretically sound. A system is an organized hookup of parts interacting in certain ways to achieve certain goals. Any change in any part of the system depart produce disparate effects (Hellhole, 2006).As Hellhole (2006) identifies change can occur at an individual (l, P or O) submit and see effective results, however the argument can in any case be constructed to assume that when change management is handled holistically, changing all the individual parts of the operative cog set, a better result is oft seen. Theory in this field of battle is rather limited, however Senior and Swales (2010) present the following illustration (Figure 10) which builds upon the work of Child (1973) tensioned on the intangible elements of organizational operations. Systems thinking is applicable to highlight here.Whilst it is possible for change to be approached from n individual (l, P or O) level, as well as a holistic stance, systems thinking looks at the purpose of does it hire changing to enhance the overall level of organizational effectiveness. An example that may be given here to succor explain and scopeual this point is that of a master(prenominal)tenance company repaving a road. One element of the system may be to fill the hole with a temporary road surface which is followed up by the removal of this and re-surfacing to correct standards a week later.It could be argued that both elements of the process could be enhanced simply the systems hinging viewpoint would maintain that removing stage one would enhance effectiveness, reduce cost and wastage, as well as the crucial element of satisfying customer demand. The author finds this theory and viewpoint eliciting and will return to this concept at a lat er point. Figure 10 The Organization as a System adapted from the work of Senior and Swales (2010) A key area that the author feels is missing from Senior and Swales (2010) model is feedback.Organizations are subject to change and influence from the remote environment this therefore requires a agree of planning and control, which is most effective if informed with feedback. Removing the feedback loop from the organization to the highest degree takes the model back to the classical theorists that considered organizations as keen but closed systems (Hellhole, 2006). Through the addition of the feedback loop the system becomes blossom out as well as debatable more open to change.Hayes (2002) expands on this concept of open systems commenting that, Open-systems theory provides such a model and views organizations as a system of interrelated components that transact with a larger environment. From the perspective of open systems, approximately of the main characteristics of organi zations are that they are embedded within a larger system, able to avoid entropy, regulated by feedback, subject to equability, cyclical McKinney and the AS model can be used here to look at the infrastructure of the organization, in addition to the easy and formal processes that is presented above.An analysis of the internal environment from this perspective adds to the prudence of analysis that can be undertaken. The AS model encompasses the areas of Structure, Systems, Style, Staff, Skills, Strategy and Shared Values providing a useful LOL to merge both tangible and intangible organizational elements. At the analysis stages of this research it will be elicit to return to the idea of change at both an individual (l, P and O) and organizational level and contrast this to what is observed within the case studies, and the influence that this holds over organizational readiness and responsiveness to change.The concept of organizational systems theory is Just one rattling small pa rt of the evolution of organization theory. This links with the changes in development of change management theory addressed revisions due to culture and influencing factors throughout the eras. The interrogation can always be asked that is everything that the business doing contributing to fulfilling the customers demands? The author would suggest that this is not necessarily always a requirement, however this could be debated further.Contingency Theory mechanical and organic Organizations Before the theories and application of change management are examined and analyses, the author believes it to be of importance to examine organizational dynamics as briefly highlighted above within Section 3. 4. 1 . There are three main viewpoints open yester theory, contingency theory, and congruence model for organizational assessment. Open systems theory as previously discussed looks as the organization as having Inputs, Processes and Outputs and is made open through the inclusion of a feed back loop.This basic approach was enhanced through the work of Burns and snitcher (1961) and Lawrence and Loras (1967) who identify that organizations do not exist and operate within a vacuum, and investigated the relationship between the internal structure and the environments in which they operate ( outdoor(a) environment). Their results, characterized due to the pointedness of internal formality, internal structure and external stability results in what they term mechanistic and organic organizations. They described firms that operated in stable environments as mechanistic because they were characterized by many rules and procedures and were dominated by a hierarchy of countenance. The firms that operated in less stable environments were described as organic because they tended to have a free-flowing, De-centralized and adaptive internal organization (Hayes, 2002). Mechanistic Organizational Characteristics Organic Organizational Characteristics 1 . Specialized tasks, narrow i n scope 1 . Common tasks and interdependencies 2. Tasks rigidly defined 2. Tasks adjusted and redefined as required 3.Strict hierarchy of authority 3. Less adherence to formal authority and rules 4. Centralized knowledge and control 4. Decentralized knowledge and control 5. Hierarchical communication 5. Network communication, diffused carry Table 18 Characteristics of Burns and Stalkers (1961) Contingency Theory Mechanistic and Organic Organizations There are a range of critics around congruence theory round agree and identify with the alignment that this model (2000) for example, disagree arguing that the explanation for organizational operation is not befool enough.The author does not have a proper(postnominal) view on this matter. It has not been unknown for alignment to be criticized within the field due to the fact that it is very difficult to apply in practice. It is clear within both the work of Burns and Stalker (1961) and Child (1973) that changes to one or more of eit her the internal or external elements will have an impact upon other elements that therefore may also require change subsequently.This was highlighted and expanded upon by the work of Cotter (1980) who in essence merges open systems theory and interagency theory creating an integrative model of organizational dynamics. He uses his model comprised of six morphological elements and key organizational processes to address impacts upon the organization in both the short, strength and long term time Figure 1 1 Cotters integrative model of organizational dynamics. radical Cotter (1980) Table 19 Cotters integrative model of organizational dynamics.Source Cotter (1980) Cotters (1980) work can be used to look at readiness and responsiveness from an organizational dynamics perspective. In the short term Cotter comments that organizational effectiveness is enhanced and determined by he speed with which the organization can control and respond to any of the six geomorphological elements bef ore they start to have an impact on one of the other areas. However using the integrative model for a long term approach the idea of readiness is very much at the core.Adaptability to the six structural elements will be the determinant of effectiveness this requires organizations to put into place tools and techniques that will protagonist evaluate elements that determine which structural element will emerge as the driving force that shapes the development of the company (Hayes, 2002). Adaptability is important because it determines whether or not the organization will be able to maintain the required degree of alignment over the long term.Over the longer term, therefore, the focus of change management needs to ensure that the structural elements of the organization are as adaptable as possible (Hayes, 2002). The organizational dynamics need to support the organizations ability to be both ready and responsive to change readiness fosters support the long term strategy whilst respon siveness will assist in the rectification of the cause-effect relationships that interlink the organizational system together.Congruence mold the focus towards strategy As the thinking behind organizational management developed the importance of strategy increased amongst firms a few years after the development of the above organizational dynamic models Needle and Dustman (1982) entered into the academic arena with their take on systems theory, the dissimilarity being a strategic focus adopted. Some of the elements of the congruence model are derived from work by Alleviate (1965) and Katz and Kahn (1966) (both cited in Hayes, 2002).The congruence model is in effect a different take on open systems theory. Its main preference is its focus towards strategy and strategic management through assessing the congruency of the organizational components on organizational effectiveness. A distinct difference between the work of Needle and Dustman (1982) and open systems theory is that the i ntegrative model focuses in some depth around the relationship between all of the components within the transformational process.This and allows the authors to propose a model thats key concept, of congruence or alignment between the organization, the environment and the internal components of the organization, aids organizational diagnoses and the development of change management strategies. Needle and Dustman play specific emphasis towards the four components that they believe create the transformation process (informal organization, formal organization, task, individual) they look specifically at the relationship between each of these components (six fits as discussed in Table 20) and that influence on the organization as a whole.This is illustrated by the directional arrows in Figure 12 below. Relationship between Example areas for consideration Individual Formal Organization What end are individual needs met by the formal organizational arrangement? For example Personal Learni ng Styles (Briggs Myers and Briggs Myers, 1980 Honey and Uniform, 2000), Team Roles (Beeline, AAA), and specific HER elements such as Individual appraisal processes (CHIP, AAA Armstrong, 2009 Armstrong and Baron, 2004). Individual Task To what extent do individuals have the skills necessary to meet task demands and to what extend do the tasks satisfy individual needs?Individual sexual Organization To what extent does the informal organization satisfy the needs of the individuals or make best use of their talents? For example is the individuals Learning Style or personality type understood and employ within the team, and organizational context (Briggs Myers and Briggs Myers, 1980 Butterflies, 2008). Task Formal Organization To what extent are the formal organizational arrangements adequate to meet the demands of the task? Task Informal Organization To what extent does the informal organization facilitate task process?For example the work of John Adair looking at Task, Team, and In dividual (1996). Formal Organization Informal Organization To what extent are the goals, rewards and structures of the informal organization consistent with those of the formal organization. Table 20 Areas for consideration between the six fits of the transformation process in the Congruence Model. Adapted from Hayes (2002) One element that strikes as being predominant, and harmonies with the opinion of the author, is that of the individual.This model takes into consideration an area that most other models only if merge with other organizational elements. Here the individual is given specific credit and attention, and is cerebrate on in terms of interaction with the formal organization, the informal organization, and the organizational tasks. The individual is seen as a personalized resource to the cuisines that brings individual skills and knowledge that help to equip and shape the organization. The author has a specific interest in the role of the individual (Butterflies, 2008 Section 3. 3. ), but it is also an important element for authors such as Hellhole (2006), and is therefore a significant cistron within the congruence model to draw the readers attention towards. Hellhole (2006) comments, Increasingly, there is recognition that organizational success depends largely on the skills and consignment of a knowledge- found custody and that organizational ultras conducive to high act are central to sustaining success beyond the short term. Figure 12 Needle and Dustmans (1980) Congruence Model. Source Needle and strategy before the transformation process.This inevitability requires that management have looked at and decided on the appropriate strategy in advance it almost contradicts the process as one would assume that the strategic direction would follow the process and possibly the output. With the inclusion of the feedback loop it could be considered that this is the case and its position here is deliberate fitting with the experiential learning cyc le of Kola (1984). At the application stages of this research when the case studies are looked at it will be interesting to see where this features in the reality of the organizations.All of the models looked at and discussed above can only ever be a simplification of reality. In terms of change management it is the ability to take these models and look at their use in turning ability to become an appropriate conceptual framework for taking an existing circumstance and managing the desired change within the applicable circumstances. Out of all of the models looked at the author feels that the congruence model is the cost applicable within the research to be carried out.This is mainly due to its strategic focus, and consideration of the individual. As previously mentioned the models only become applicable and useful if application as a conceptual framework can be adopted. This will be applied and analyses within the findings chapter (Section 5). Drivers for change There are many dri vers for change and these are dependent upon on the area of change that you address. This is such a huge topic and an in-depth analysis far exceeds the scope that the topic can occupy within this thesis.It is hoped that the main drivers for change for each organization will become apparent within the case study analysis as these are very personal and dependent on both the organization and the industry that the organization is operating within. The following drivers for change are included to provide context and provide some food for thought these have been taken from the text Understanding Change, by Hellhole (2006). Competition Globalization Demands for greater transparency and accountability Global Sustainability Technology The e-economy The consumer revolution The social context Knowledge Management Future organizational trendsChanging industrial relations climate and employment legislation Stereotypical social attitudes The rise of the stakeholder Degree at which mental institu tion progresses Demographics and Social fragmentation they believe to be the 10 top drivers for organizational change in 2010 whilst these make interesting reading for the author, the author is of particular support with the tenth a new war for talent commences. This picks up on what the author has been trying to convey throughout the sections on Personnel Management (Section 3. ) and Knowledge Management (Section 3. 3). Not only are there external drivers for change UT internal ones too. As people recover from the economic crisis they will begin to drive forward organizational change in a bid to better themselves and get credit and assurance of their work to the organization. Organizations need to bear this is mind and respond appropriately. The ten top drivers for organizational change as identified by Bloomberg Businesslike (2010) are 1 . Consumer preferences will remain reset base on values, not pricier.Energy costs will continue to increase in the medium termed. U. S. Tax pol icy could erode the competitive positioning of U. S. Companies. Innovation happens for uphill market consumers, not in emerging markets 05. A new return to vertical integration gains traction 06. Industry shifts create competitive shifts 07. Increases in info requires more Judgment from decision makers 08. Markets reward long-term strategic focuses. Economic recovery wont mean recovery for everyone 010. A new war for talent commences Bloomberg Businesslike (2010).Kurt Lenin group focused change theory Kurt Lenin can be quoted as saying Group life is never without change (1947). Predominantly Kurt Lenin presents us with a change management theory revolving round the concept of unfreezing change and refreezing which presents a high- level approach to change. This has specific relationships back to the school of military group management due to its importance for change in group settings as highlighted by Lenin in his work Frontiers in Group dynamics addressing the art of social sc ience of social equilibrium and social change (1947).Linens work is not only applicable in a group setting it also holds great importance for the individual context too as well as large communities of practice and teams (Lenin, 1947). Through use of he model there is scope for management to make a radical change, minimize disruption of operations and ensure that the change becomes a permanent and rooted element of the organization through the re-freezing stage.The model, very focused around getting people to change as opposed to changing an organization, consists of three stages Unfreezing This is based upon the assumption that there is a need to change as present practices may have become outdated, slow, ineffective, expensive etc. The need to instigate the unfreezing stage is typically based upon an assumption that the status quo is no longer preferable or domineering exulting from this there is often a motivation for change, the team unites, recognizes the need for change and begins the process of change management.It is essential there is some degree of confidence amongst the team that the change will be implemented and fulfilled successfully in order to achieve group buy-in and a positive Psychological Contract. The Change Normal change management theories and principles generally come into play here. Whilst the team may all be on parkland evince will develop, individuals will have different ideas of the perceived outcomes, expectations will not be managed, the Psychological Contract diminish etc This is a time of exploration of opportunities where goals and objectives are set and implementation for change is developed.Lenin stresses the fact that it is essential as with any other change management theory that goals, objectives and plans for implementation are continually assessed and reassessed in order to generate the best possible outcomes. It is important to note here that whilst the objectives are important for Lenin this does not necessarily fo rm the most essential stage. His focus upon change within groups provides a perspective that is more in line with the needs of individuals and maintain positive relationships and focus, in order to bring about a successful re- freezing stage as described below.Re-freezing At the completion of the change discussions when implementation has been rolled out across all involved, Lenin identifies the need for re-freezing. Change will only reach its full effect if its made permanent (Lenin, 1947). As in the re-freezing of a liquid it is important to cement or solidify the change making it an official procedure of the organization in drawing specific attention to the completion of the project and the new processes re-freezing would therefore inhibit individuals travel to the old ways as existed pre-change process.Refreezing is the heart of this model. Lenin (1947) comments, A change towards a higher level of group performance is frequently short-lived, after a gun for hire in the arm, g roup life soon returns to the previous level. This indicates that it does not suffice to define the objective of planned change in group performance as the reaching of a different level. Permanency of the new level, or permanency for a desired period, should be included in the objective. Figure 13 Kurt Linens model of unfreezing and re-freezing.Source Adapted from Lenin (1947) Right Sizing There are various authors who have looked into the correlation between the size of the firm in terms of personnel and effectiveness in organizational performance. There is however still a heightened awareness that there are additional variables that impose upon organizational effectiveness that is to say technology it is said that this could possibly account for up to fifty per cent of the variability in result findings which lead to an inconclusive theory being proposed (Senior and Swales, 2010).Culture, drawing cards style, and politics all have an influence on the correlation teens size and o rganizational performance. Child (1988) who investigated into the correlation between size and performance concluded that the leadership style operated within the organization was relevant to the size of the organization (number of employees employed). It was the leadership style and subsequent influence into the structure that Childs (1988) sees as having an impact upon organizational effectiveness including role specialization and formalization.Senior and Swales (2010) summaries the work of Child (1988) large organizations with a higher degree of bureaucracy structure were in general better performed. Bureaucracy did not work for the smaller organization who had a better degree of performance with a more informal leadership style. In organizations with below 2,000 people performance was assumed to be better in those that have little formal structure more bureaucracy and superior performance was greater (Senior and Swales, 2010). Several external driving forces for change (Section 3. 4. ) such as the current economic climate and recent recession which have occurred at both local, regional, national and even internationalistic levels have created a heightened degree of urgency or organizations to increase efficiency many are doing this through operations management and seeing the organizations as a clearly defined set of inputs, processes and outputs. The author is of the belief that for successful change management to occur the process of managing change moldiness occur holistically, which can also occur when viewed through the strategic lens.Both the immediate survival and long term sustenance of any organization heavily depends on organizational responsiveness to its external environment and its ability to face the external challenge. A huge problem facing strategic re-focusing of operations creates opposition due to an emotional connection to common practice challenged by the need to change for survival (Balloon and Hope-Halley, 2008, Sense, 1993). With t he distinct lack of literature on right sizing the author has conceptualized a model that illustrates where the concept of right-sizing fits into the organization.Taking the multi-lens perspective approach (Regional and Sprinter, 1996) and essential elements of organizational management the author proposes that the concept of right sizing is situated predominately within the cognitive lens. Figure 14 range of right sizing within the organization Right sizing would normally e linked to the structural view of the organization. The Rational Lens considers the structure of the organization as an ought-to-be scenario.The Cognitive Lens considers right sizing as what is practicably possible scenario. The Rational Lens considers culture and corporate politics as an curb to change which is what many change managers attempt to override or ignore. With the cognitive lens approach culture and corporate politics are seen as an integral component of change. Therefore culture and corporate pol itics should be understood and made to become enablers within the change management process.This is currently the issue that several(prenominal) organizations are facing. By positioning right sizing as a resulting factor of a combination of Organizational Culture, Politics and Organizational Type the author feels that it will help in the analysis stages where the variety of case studies will be analyses. As mentioned within Section 2 the case study profiles were measuredly selected by the author for their variations in size.The author feels that it is important to note here that there is not necessarily a formula for what is the right size of an organization or a specific team dealing with change management, UT that this may be discussed throughout the finding and analysis chapter (Section 5) where the case studies may lead towards generating an propensity as to what works best. The Readiness of Change Several articles regarding both individual and institutional readiness to chang e (readiness) within an organizational context have been written over the centuries.Many well respected, and up-and-coming academics have posed models and theories in relation to how readiness can be increased, encouraged and developed within both individual and institutional spheres of influence a large gap that is still existent in the knowledge base centers around the definition of readiness to change. Several pieces of relevant academic literature and building together a picture towards a comprehensive definition of readiness for change.Holt et alls work which has been consulted extensively opens with an important issue that the author must recognize the lack of measurement of readiness for change does not arise from a lack of instruments designed for this purpose. There are several in public but without a common and universal understanding of what constitutes readiness a liable and robust framework, to operate quantitatively cannot (and has not currently) been developed.Eviden tly, with readiness being an area of research that is being encouraged (Holt et al, 2007) this is therefore an area that requires the knowledge gap being fulfilled in order for research in this area to pursue. It is the submit of the forthcoming section to be devoted to this cause, reviewing the use of the literature, working towards a definition of readiness, and identifying means of its analysis within a strategic institutionally based context. There is also the need for the adopted method to be suitable to institutions of different natures, sizes and specialties as always generalization is imperative.Readiness and Resistance are they related concepts? The concept of readiness is a result of the concept and result of resistance a sweeping statement or Just a different approach? It is perhaps no surprise, that change management due to its inclusion with the human resource management approach is highly subjective to the reactions of people (employees). This would explain the deve lopment of the need to research readiness, resulting from managers efforts to reduce resistance to change.Again the body of literature exists in this area, yet Ramekins et al (1993, cited in Holt et al, 2007) put forward their argument that any of these, strategies designed to help managers avoid resistance, are effective only to the extent which they facilitate employee readiness. The circular nature of this issue is again illustrated here. The transition of the Traditional HARM philosophical system into the personnel management phase transfers its focus from objectives and output into placing value, focus and ultimately having an investment and involvement with he people.To some extent it can be argued that traditionally to date the people management processes within educational setting operate under this philosophy a large degree of responsibility and autonomous working is put upon the employees and in response it is hoped that the organization values staffs contributions. Gener al motivational principles (Amazon, etc ) encourage the involvement of employees in a drive to encourage general commitment to organizational objectives and partnering of aims, especially plans for development, drive forward and ultimately change.Readiness has been looked at with a specific workforce focus whilst this is important, organizational culture, as explored above, external pressures and the lack of a strategic dimension can also reduce organizational readiness. What impact does this have on the organizations desire to change and move into a market leader position, driving forward its position within the market and gaining an advantage in what is a highly competitive market arena. Oakland and Tanners Organizational Change Framework interrogation supporting the model Oakland and Tanner have been instrumental in the field of research into change

Thursday, May 23, 2019

A Biographical Approach to the Poem The Whipping by Robert Hayden Essay

Robert Hayden is one of the best-known American poets of his time. However, he is also one of the most underrated poets of all time, arguably not as much accolades as new(prenominal) poets of the same era. His poems exude admirable sincerity and tremendous grasp of poetic devices. His beautiful poem The Whipping is regarded as one of his finest work. A biographical come near to the poem would reveal to us that Hayden transforms his bitter memories to a sumptuous work of art. The poem is basically about a woman whipping a boy, for somewhat reason that is not explicitly stated in the poem.The second line is whipping the boy again tells us that violent act is being carried on regularly. The reader immediately would assume that the woman is the mother of the boy, regardless if the woman is the boys biological or foster parent. The picture that Hayden had painted is vividly painful. The lines she strikes and strikes the shrilly circling / boy till the fetch breaks suggests the level o f anger of the woman and the fear and pain of the boy. The woman stopped whipping the boy only when the stick was already broken.Halfway through the poem, the author shifts from third to first person words could bring the face that I / no longer knew or love Those first person lines suggest to the readers that the speaking persona could have undergone the same kind of treatment. The line well, it is over now, it is over is a potent hint that the narrator is recalling his past. He is able to forgive the one that whipped him. However, he is unable to shake off the memories of being whipped as a boy. A peek to Haydens register is likely to lead us to clues that had led him to conceive this poem.Hayden was born and grew up in a Detroit ghetto which the people there called Paradise Valley. During that time, violence, in the form of incarnate penalization, was not uncommon. Hayden also had an irregular family life as a child. His biological parents were separated even before his birth. A couple who also exhibited a vaporific relationship took him in. As a child, Hayden had witnessed domestic violence from both his biological and foster parents (Greasely 251-252).Hayden had shown us admirable honesty through his poem The Whipping. Corporal punishment is not much talked about by adults, probably because they are now currently the ones guilty of whipping their children. Hayden had shared his memories to us to convey a centre that would be vital for any community. He is suggesting to us that corporal punishment is more likely to generate childhood trauma than discipline. Moreover, he is also tilt that violence to a child is injustice. Parents blaming their child for their lifelong hidings are the primary reason why this vicious cycle of violence is still ongoing.

Wednesday, May 22, 2019

The Good Shepherd and the Black Sheep: Paradoxical Irony in “The Lame Shall Enter First”

When thou doest alms, let not thy left hand accredit what thy right hand doeth counsels the Bible, thus setting the precedent for entirely well-meaning members of western society concerning their charitable intentions (Matt. 6. 3). Hu valet de chambreitys motivation to aid others, regardless of the outcome, is oft times spotted by the sharp struggle between selflessness and selfishness. Flannery OConnor captures this classic conflict between good and evil in Southern Grotesque fashion through her characters, the protagonist Sheppard and his foil, Rufus Johnson, in comment2 The Lame Shall Enter First. comment3 Challenging the literal paradigm of unhorse and darkness, OConnor weaves together well crafted characterization, cryptic dialogue, and both biblical and literary allusion in this incomprehensible plot and, by way of Sheppard and the antithetical Rufus, blends the black and bloodless of Christian dogma into an ironic grey. The contrast of light and dark begins with the des cription and characterization of the unmistakablely angelic comment4 Sheppard, and continues with the introduction of the obscure and ominous Rufus Johnson. OConnor is not pretentious in her description and development of either character.Sheppards white hair and halo are obvious references to his protagonistic status as the storys do-gooder comment5 (Norton 371). The narrator continues on by lauding his charitable contribution to the community as a counselor and weekend volunteer for boys no wizard else cared about (372). The readers only initial clue toward Sheppards self-righteous mania is his deliberate, guilt-implying sermon towards Norton, his disconcerted and doomed son. It is not, however, until the arrival of the dim, drenched Rufus that seemingly stark white coat of Sheppard loses its untainted radiance. comment6 Johnson is literally cast as the black sheep from the moment he limps into the house in his soaking wet black suit (376). The eventual(prenominal) personifica tion of evil comes when he is physically compared directly to the perennial villian Adolf Hitler (378). His opaque character is developed as dark as his appearance through his sodding(a) ingratitude and spiteful words toward his supposed savior, Sheppard. The ambiguous dialogue between the two main characters continues to blur the line between the traditional literal sentiment of good versus evil and the authors own Grotesque version. comment7 OConnors use of foreshadowing and plot development through dialogue is essential to the work, and is much more obvious upon rereading it. though Sheppards works are concrete and compassionate, his words are abstract and empty. His answers to both Norton and Rufus come in rehearsed, logical explanations. comment8 Sheppards attempts to animate either child about their future day are thwarted by his own uncertainty. The clearest example of this comes from one of the most crucial sections of the story, when Sheppard fails to satisfy Nortons des ire to know where his deceased mother is She doesnt exist . . Thats all I have to give you, . . . the truth (383). comment9 Where the good shepherd fails, the black sheep prevails. The dark character that Rufus is developed into shows an admirable assurity and for once a faint light flickers from behind the black sheen that appeared in the boys eyes (375) as he describes the existence of heaven and hell to Norton, confirming that the boys mother is saved (383). Then, in one of the most obvious uses of foreshadowing in the story, Rufus goes on to tell Norton comment10 that Right now youd go where she is . . . but if you live long enough, youll go to hell (383). erstwhile again Sheppard and his voice of reason seem to grow grayer as he immediately tells Norton to close the window, as if to separate him from the stars and his newly found hope in the existence of his mother (383). Admittedly influenced by her orthodox Christian background (408), OConnor scatters both biblical and ass orted literal allusions throughout her story, creating somewhat of a parody of common Christian themes. The use of Sheppard as the name of the protagonist binds the character to some religious comparison immediately.This is only reinforced when Rufus pronounces bitterly He thinks hes messiah Christ (381) comment11Another use of allusion with reference to Sheppard is Rufus comment12 crudely accurate accusation of him as a big tin Jesus (395). Like the forlorn tin man from The Wizard of Oz, Rufus statement argues that Sheppard is just as hollow as that empty, heartless shell of a man, regardless of his outwardly good deeds. Perhaps the most cover phrase in the story is OConnors allusion to the verse in St.Matthew quoted in the first paragraph. comment13 Repeated both at the beginning of the story and in his final appearance, Rufus declares that Sheppard dont know his left hand from his right (377, 395). Clearly OConnor is alluding to Sheppards selfish or misguided agenda well ill ustrated when he tells Norton of his desire to help the orphaned Rufus. Sheppards publicly through with(p) deeds are challenged by Rufus, the unwilling recipient of a well-meaning man going through the motions, yet craving some sort of support for his actions.The once polarized characters grow ever closer with the equalizing power of reality. The Lame Shall Enter First ends as abruptly as it begins. There is no cathartic advantage for the alleged comment14 good shepherd, only the agony of total defeat. Sheppards epiphany comes too late and the stark contrast that once distinguished him from the dark object of his alms turns into the feeble realization that he is no better than the beleaguered beneficiary.Through OConnors strategic literary devices, deft character contrast, and parody of entrenched Christian values, the reader is left to gestate and dissect the fact that maybe the entire flock comment15 isnt worth one black sheep. Between the black and white islands of moral cer tainty, good and evil, there lies a sea of ironic grey. Works Cited The King James Version. Great Britain Cambridge UP, 1996. OConnor, Flannery. The Lame Shall Enter First. The Norton Introduction to Literature. Eds. Jerome Beaty and J. Paul Hunter. 7th ed. New York Norton, 1998. 371-414.