Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Economics Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 1

Economics - Research Paper Example What is critical however is the assumption that governments, in this type of situation, tend to adapt expansionary macroeconomic policies in order to stimulate growth and increase in employment level. Depression however, is an entirely different aspect of business cycle as it indicates more depressed levels of economic activity. (Krugman and Wells) The current economic situation is quite alarming due to the fact that despite the extensive support from the government, economy is not recovering. The discussion on the double dip recession is heating as many economists feel that US economy specifically may face the double dip recession if timely corrective measures are not taken. (Elliott). This situation is therefore turning out to be the same situation which America experienced during 1930s as same macroeconomic indicators were not showing satisfactory performance at that time also. This paper will therefore attempt to argue that currently America is going through a depression and not the recession as macroeconomic variables are showing same signs as they were during the depression of 1930s. There are key differences between recession and depression as both indicate the degree of severity faced by the economy. Recession is often characterized by the decline in the gross domestic product (GDP) of the country by more than a quarter. This decline is often limited to less than 10% decline in GDP of the country. Recession is also characterized by the decline in the industrial production as well as the real income. Whereas depression is considered as an economic situation where the overall economy shrink by more than 10% over the period of one year in any given period. Thus the difference between the two is really dependent upon the length of time the economy experience a continuous decline in the key economic variables. Depression therefore indicates a more grave situation

Monday, October 28, 2019

Complexity of Poetry Essay Example for Free

Complexity of Poetry Essay Poetry is a way for the reader to openly interpret a poem in almost any way they see fit. Because there is so much freedom of interpretation with poetry, there leaves a lot of room for discussion and opposition. Billy Collin’s poem, â€Å"Introduction to Poetry†, breaks down the basic ways for interpreting and understanding a poem. In summary, he explains that the reader cannot focus on trying to figure out one specific meaning of a poem, but instead, try to piece together small parts to understand a deeper meaning. Collin’s rules on how to interpret a poem can be applied to Hughes’s poem about a young student writing a poem for homework. Instead of looking at Hughes’s poem as a whole, the reader can better understand it by breaking it down and figuring out why each line is important and how it ties together with the poem as a whole. Understanding Collins rules to interpret a poem, help the reader decipher Hughes poem on a deeper, more academic level. Langston Hughes’s poem explains how a black, twenty two year old man and the rest of his white classmates are given an assignment to write a paper. The narrator, who is also the student, explains his thoughts about the assignment and how him being the only colored one in his class might be reflected on his grade on the assignment. At the beginning of the poem, he explains how he has to get to class everyday by traveling across some of the â€Å"better† parts of town. The student goes on to explain how even though he is colored, he likes the same things and has the same wants as everyone else. He states that he is no different than the rest of his class and that he too has knowledge to share. By stating this, the student is expressing to the reader how he thinks him and the instructor are equal. In the last few lines the student writes, â€Å"As I learn from you, / I guess you learn from me† (37-38). This explains how even though their skin color and age is different they are still able to learn from each other. The student has a somewhat optimistic and confident tone throughout the poem. He is aware of his capabilities and knows that he can be just as successful as anyone else. Billy Collins â€Å"Introduction to Poetry† explains how whenever people analyze a poem they do not try to find the true message of it. By writing, â€Å"But all they want to do / is tie the poem to a chair with rope / and torture a confession out of it,† explains how the majority of people are lazy and want everything handed to them effortlessly (12-14). This last stanza explains how some people look at poems from one point of view and expect the meaning of the poem to be written out for them. The author is stating that people should look at the poem from different angles just as one would look at the world from a color slide. He tries to explain to the reader that if one were to interpret the poem from a whole new approach, then they could find a deeper meaning than just the surface meaning. After reading Collins â€Å"Introduction to Poetry†, the reader should have a better sense of how to interpret Hughes’s poem. Throughout the first part of Hughes’s poem the reader may think all of the characters background information including his address, age, and hometown is pointless. After reading an entire stanza about this â€Å"pointless† information the reader may try to stop understanding the poem before they even finish it. If the reader uses Collins instructions about analyzing a poem, they may find that all of this â€Å"pointless† information is actually important and helps contribute to the characters feelings of insecurity. Collins poem explains that not all poems have one specific answer or meaning the writer is trying to get across. Keeping this idea in mind, the reader may realize that Hughes’s poem, in fact, does not state an answer or solution to the characters mixed feelings. Although both of these poems leave room the readers own special interpretation, there is a basic meaning and idea to each one. Both of these poems fit well together because Collin’s thoughts and ideas can be directly applied when reading Hughes’s poem. The poems are an effective example of how even though a poem may seem short and simple, there is usually a deeper and greater meaning beneath the surface.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Changes in Family and Marriage Structure :: Sociology

Marriages and Families â€Å"Changes† Imagine that, if in the 1920’s someone would have predicted that by the year 2000 one out of two marriages will end in divorce. The number of single parents will triple and lots of them will never marry. Stay at home moms will become almost obsolete and, gay people will want to get married and adopt children. Oh my, could you imagine the look on their faces? Families are defiantly different now than they were then, but the world is also different. Does this mean than families are deteriorating or are they stronger than ever? Maybe they are just changing and are still as strong as they once were. So many changes have taken place within the family. Some of them are higher divorce rates, more working mothers, more homosexual families, and a huge increase in children born out of wedlock. Many argue that most of the family’s problems come from the mother working outside of the house. The fact is that working mothers is nothing new. Mothers have always done something to help out, even if it was sewing, baking, or working on the land. In today’s world it’s very hard to make ends meet with only one income. Children benefit in some ways from their mom working. In this materialistic culture children want to have all the nice things and what’s hot. Working mothers spend on average just as much quality time with their children as non working mothers. Divorce, single parents, and unmarried parents have always existed. It is no doubt that the rates of them have increased dramatically. Is this a bad sign? This doesn’t mean that families are weak. It only means that people’s morals have changed. Families are not perfect, but they are strong. We also have more freedoms than we did in the 1920s. Women can now leave their husbands when things are unbearable. Women didn’t have as many choices then. Just because families seemed good then don’t mean that they were. It’s not something we should try to live up to. After all we are talking about a time when slaves were legal and treated badly. On the opposite side men don’t get to really be full time fathers after divorce. Divorce defiantly affects children. It is also better for children if they don’t have to live in a household of anger and unhappiness. Of

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Chemistry Gcse Coursework Rates of Reaction Essay

Investigating how the concentration of sodium-thiosulphate (STS) and hydrochloric acid (HCL) affects the rate of reaction in the experiment. In addition I am also checking how different variables affect my experiment and also how I can make my test more precise, reliable and accurate. Strategy According to my results, as the concentration of STS solution increased the rate of reaction of my experiment was increased. Also as the concentration of STS solution decreased, the time of reaction increased. In my preliminary test I checked my equipment and I came to a conclusion that my equipment was working well. The preliminary test checked if the experiment actually worked and the things I used were reliable for me to use. The method I used to carry out my experiment was very reliable. I first picked the type of experiment I was going to do. Which consisted of many types or variables such as: changing the temperature, catalyst, surface area and concentration etc. As I had limited time I picked concentration. I also had to choose which type concentration I needed either 1 molar or 2 molars (concentration types). I realised that picking the 1 molar STS solution the rate of reaction was very slow. However in the 2 molar STS solution the rate of reaction was quick. As I was short on time I chose the 2 molar STS solution nevertheless picking this type of concentration could lead me to see more reaction between STS and HCL particles. Therefore allowing me to create an accurate test and allowing me to obtain precise results. Once I decided the concentration I then carried out my experiment. In my preliminary test I carried out my experiment using three beakers which contained of STS, H20 and HCL. In my experiment I applied H20 so that I could see the rate of reaction through a more dilute solution. I applied all of these solutions in to a conical flask. I recorded my results using a timer just to see if the experiment worked. What I predicted in my preliminary test was, as the sodium-thiosulphate concentration increased, the time taken for the solution to turn cloudy took longer. In this experiment I knew when the solution was completely cloudy was until the black cross underneath the flask had disappeared to my sight. Sodium-thiosulphate – used as solution as part of my experiment Hydrochloric Acid – used as solution as part of my experiment Beaker – used for carrying the solution Measuring cylinder – used for measuring the volume of solution Timer – used to measure the time taken for the solution to get cloudy Calculator – used to calculate the average time Conical Flask – used to carry out the experiment Black-cross card- used to see weather or not the solution had turned fully cloudy. Collecting Data In my experiment most of the variables I had were: volume of HCL, volume of STS, concentration of HCL or STS, temperature of room, type of apparatus and many more. The variable I changed was the volume of STS and the volume of water. The variable that I kept the same was the hydrochloric acid which remained at 30ml throughout the whole experiment. By doing so it made my experiment a fair test as I was controlling other variables such as HCL. I kept the other variables the same in order to allow my experiment to be a fair test. Taking temperature into consideration if I did not control this my results would be inaccurate. My experiment was carried out very safely. I made sure that I was wearing my safety goggles whilst I carried out my test. My experiment was placed not in the way of people so that my experiment is not any risk to me or them. In addition the safety rules made my experiment a fair test. Nevertheless regarding my data of results I had were very reliable and precise as I don’t have any outliers and my graph shows that the increase of STS is directly proportional to the time taken for the solution to become cloudy. To make sure that my test went accurately and precisely I made sure that my timing was accurately done not pressing the timer too early or late. This again shows that my test was a fair test. As the range of volumes of STS I had consisted between 12ml to 40ml although if I applied higher concentrations the test would have been more reliable. However I used these concentration types so that I can get a clear picture that STS reacts with HCL in a certain period of time. I repeated these volumes three times and as a result no outliers had become visible to me on my data. This suggested that my experiment was carried out very accurately. As well as in my preliminary test I also repeated the test three times so that I could see the results were accurate and precise. Similarly my real experiment was done very precisely such as calculating or measuring the results or measuring the amount of solution in each beaker etc. I predicted that I would find a wrong result whilst doing my experiment, however my prediction was wrong and the results were very accurate. If by chance I found an outlier I would not count it with the rest of my results and I would repeat that test again. One of my problems I encountered during my experiment was the time taken to press the timer which in my opinion affected my results. Interpreting Data What I notice in my results was that as the concentration of STS kept on increasing the time take for the solution to get cloudy was decreasing. For example when there was 12ml of STS the average time was 140 seconds. Where as when the STS was at 40ml the average time was 32 seconds which shows a very big relationship between the amount of STS and the time taken. This was due to the concentration of the STS solution. In comparison to my preliminary results I can see some similarities between the concentration types of the STS solution. Also I can see on my graph the scatter of results look very accurate and the natural trend of my results shows a negative correlation. What my graph shows is that the percentage of sodium-thiosulphate increased then the time taken for the experiment decreased. So as the sodium-thiosulphate particles increased which meant that there where more particles colliding with the hydrochloric acid particles. This altogether led to a decrease in the time taken for the reaction to happen. Not only is the results reliable but they are easy to understand as for the key which describes the part on the graph such as line of best fit, error bars etc. Therefore the data I obtained looks very reliable. The picture bellow suggests that if the concentration increases the collision rate increases. Also many other variables affect the collision rate to increase such as Catalysts and temperature etc. Evaluation In conclusion I think my experiment was very successful. My data is very reliable and accurate as I have no outliers. I probably did not encounter any outliers because the precision and the accuracy I applied to my investigation during timing or measuring etc. this shows the reliability of my investigation. The results could have been improved by repeating the investigation more times so that I can further improve the reliability of my data. On the other hand I am very confident with my results. On my graph the results show very small error bars which suggests that my results again were very accurate. I was also confidant with the safety of this experiment which mostly when I was pouring out STS and HCL. Therefore this applies to the accuracy of the test. On my table of results I repeated my investigation 3 times to ensure the reliability of my data. Nevertheless I measured the time taken to the nearest second which builds precision in my experiment. I am very confident with the method I used whilst using simple equipment and obtaining fantastic results and my experiment was a success. Overall I am really confident in this investigation, however I can make improvements. Maybe using a better timer to record my results would have granted me more accurate results. I could have also changed the concentration of the HCL solution. This would make my investigation more of a fair test because during my experiment I used a stronger concentration of the STS solution and so it would have been better if I used the stronger HCL solution. Also safety was equally important to the investigation. I can also improve my experiment by using a turbidity sensor which judges how cloudy things are. By using this turbidity sensor would give me more precise and reliable results. In my opinion this experiment was a very good choice as temperature, surface area and catalysts were also different variable choices, however what I noticed at the start of the experiment was that this investigation was easy to layout and the equipment was available. My results were outstanding seen as though I had no outliers or the error bars on my graph are very small. The line of best fit shows a natural trend between the solution and the average time taken. But taken into consideration the time taken to record the results was not 100% accurate. This problem would have been avoided if I used more accurate equipment. Taken as a whole I can see that my experiment went very well. I am very confident with my results and I can feel that my investigation was very precise, accurate and my results were extremely reliable. I also feel very confidant that my investigation went well.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Functional Area Plan: Human Resources Essay

MegaJava Corporation is a medium-sized manufacturing company with 250 employees. It directly markets one product: a unique coffee cup with a patented ball bearing sliding mechanism. Nathan Jr. and a group of 10 other executives run the company. MegaJava Corporation has received a large sum of money from a venture capitalist. The venture capitalist and Nathan Jr. are predicting 100 percent growth in five years. To achieve that growth, productivity will need to increase at a similar rate. Therefore, this proposal provides a suggested business model update. Further, the functional areas updates are indicated to assist the business model to predict, plan, and implement future growth and profits. MegaJava will need to have a strong and aggressive approach when it comes to Human Resources. Like all companies the employees are the backbone and driving focus to the company’s success. Defined in A Guide for Strengthening HRM Systems (2005) as the use of procedures, policies, and practices to recruit, maintain, and develop employees in order for the organization to meet its desired goals; Human Resources is the backbone of the MegaJava Corporation. The company will also need to budget for the existing positions as well projected positions and workload requirements. The Human Resources department at MegaJava will focus on staffing, profitability, improvement strategies, performance evaluations, and employee relations litigations amongst other things. The challenges MegaJava faces in the future with the current 250 employees and growing will be retention, development and work-life balance. â€Å"The top three in the U.S. were managing talent, improving leadership and managing demographics† Goldsmith, M. (2008). Managing Workforce Flow and Developing Human Capital is two areas that continue to be ongoing issues within the HR field. MegaJava will comply with all Federal, State and Local laws dealing with discrimination based on race, color, gender, religion and handicap. All applicants will be judged on case by case basis and will not be denied a job if they are capable of completing the task regardless of any physical or mental handicaps and in cases where MegaJava will need to give special accommodations within federal guidelines. Compile too all privacy laws dealing with an applicant’s right to privacy and all employees handling personal records and information have to maintain a level of confidentiality. MegaJava will follow all IRS and Immigration laws for all employees and contractors. Benefits are important to all employees sometimes more than. MegaJava will have a benefits package that includes health and dental insurance, retirement plans, life insurance, disability and vacation. Full-Time employees will be offered some mandatory benefits. The company will be required legally to have unemployment and worker’s compensation for all employees because it is federally mandatory. Along with compensation MegaJava will implement programs that will serve as tools to drive productivity and performance while reducing risk within the organization. Recognition programs will boost morale while empowering employees. The site GreatBizTools listed that only 25% of employees work at their full capacity and 50% give the bare minimum. GreatBuzTools. (NA). Future Growth As the demands of the business increase, the company must have sufficient managers to create a workload planner, delegate tasks and supervise employees. MegaJava will comply with all Federal, State and Local laws dealing with discrimination based on al race, color, gender, religion and handicap. The company will maintain high ethical standards of confidentiality when dealing with an applicant’s privacy and all employees handling personal records; complying with all IRS, Immigration & Disability laws for all employees and contractors. MegaJava is predicting to hire an additional 250 employees over the next 5 years. The estimated payroll for the hiring will be over 2.3 million dollars. â€Å"A growing, entrepreneurial company, with variable sales and income, may be better off controlling the levels of base salaries† Heathfield, S. The recommendation will be to hire an estimated 50 employees annually. Reducing the number of management hired every year will give the company the opportunity to develop and promote current employees to the next level. Development is a great recognition tool for any company because most employees will like to feel they are growing along with the success of their company. Defining Roles: Positions and Responsibilities Hourly positions that can be beneficial to the HR team would be an Administrative Assistant which would require 1 to 5 years’ experience, high school diploma or equivalent and a starting salary of 47k annually. The Administrative Assistant will be coordinate support for the organization. Duties for this position includes record keeping, answering the phones, mail distribution, submit work orders and track employee attendance. The employee within this position can be developed and promoted into the HR Specialist and/or Customer Service Representative position  Human Resources Specialist and Human Resources Manager are important position to the recruiting and retaining of employees. Qualifications for a strong HR Specialist and Manager would be 1 to 5 years’ experience directly in the recruiting field, minimum of a Bachelor’s degree and has a starting salary of 52k annually for a HR Specialist and 99k annually for a HR Manager. Both positions recruit, interview, and hire applicants, however the HR Manager focuses more on strategic planning and performance management. Candidates within this role can transition into a Benefits Coordinator or Benefits Manager position. Bureau of Labor Statistics, (2012)  The Compensation and Benefits department is responsible for planning and coordinating how and how much the company pays and the benefits available to the employees. Working within this department employees are required to monitor market conditions while staying updated and within compliance of local, state and federal law with wages and benefits. The department maintains that operations of the business stays within the budget created at the beginning of the fiscal year. Other advancements for employees within this position would be Accounting & Finance.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Origami and Geometric Constructions.

Origami and Geometric Constructions. (A comparison between straight edge and compass constructions and origami)In high school geometry students examine the types of geometrical operations that can be performed by using only a straight edge and a compass (SEC). One learns how to draw a line connecting two points, how to draw circles, how to bisect angles, how to draw perpendicular lines, etc. In fact, you may remember that all SEC constructions are a sequence of steps, each of which is one of the following:Given two points we can draw a line connecting them.Given two (nonparallel) lines we can locate their point of intersection.Given a point p and a length r we can draw a circle with radius r centered at the point p.Given a circle we can locate its points of intersection with another circle or line.This list of axioms encompasses everything you can do with a SEC.Book Folded from One Paper, InsideThat is, anything you do with a SEC can be broken down into a sequence of the above operations. Using this axiom list, one can begin to talk about things that cannot be done using a SEC. we can also make geometric constructions with origami, using the side of the paper as the straight edge and folding up to an angle to simulate a compass. Furthermore, trisecting angles and doubling cubes is possible with origami! Seeing this can lead to a greater understanding of why these things are impossible with SEC, and is the main topic of this report.Huzita's Origami Axioms:Paper folding can be quite complex. There are many intricate paper folding exercises, and harnessing the power of origami through a list of axioms, like we did above for SEC, is tricky. The Italian-Japanese mathematician Humiaki Huzita has formulated what is currently the most powerful known set...

Monday, October 21, 2019

American History and Technology essays

American History and Technology essays The advertisement sheet for Muller's "Alpha" Patent Gas-Making Machine provides much insight into the state and orientation of American technology in the 1870s. From the advertisement, we can discern a United States at the dawn of its rise to an industrial power, using technology to hold its own against the more advanced industrialized European countries such as The advertisement shows a rendition of a gas-making machine, a devise that could produce fuel for "lighting all places out of reach of coal gas." The sellers further touted a machine that would provide fuel for household activities such as lighting and heating, though paradoxically, the machine The advertisement most likely was published between the 1870s and the 1880s, a time that saw much research into various gas-making machines. During this time, much of the industrialized nations were dependent on coal gas, a by-product of the distillation of coal. Coal gas was often used for gas lighting and was also alternately referred to as "town gas." The downside, however, was the expense. The price of canned coal made the production of coal gas too expensive for many would-be manufacturers. England and Germany were the leading producers of coal gas oils, which were vital to manufacturing as well as for household uses. In the United States, coal gas was also important for the railway industry, the vital spine that held together a fledgling union that had just emerged from Civil To rise to the level of industrialization already enjoyed by its European counterparts, the United States thus turned to technology. The period from the 1860s to the early 1900s were thus years of extraordinary technological invention in the United States. This era saw the invention of the telephone, telegraph, the cotton gin and other techniques of mass production. Though obviously created b ...

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Brigadier General George S. Greene in the Civil War

Brigadier General George S. Greene in the Civil War George S. Greene - Early Life Career: The son of Caleb and Sarah Greene, George S. Greene was born at Apponaug, RI on May 6, 1801 and was a second cousin of American Revolution commander Major General Nathanael Greene.   Attending Wrentham Academy and a Latin school in Providence, Greene hoped to continue his education at Brown University, but was prevented from doing so due to a downturn in his familys finances resulting from the Embargo Act of 1807.   Moving to New York City as a teenager, he found work in a dry goods store.   While in this position, Greene met Major Sylvanus Thayer who was serving as superintendent of the United States  Military Academy. Impressing Thayer, Greene earned an appointment to West Point in 1819.   Entering the academy, he proved a gifted student.   Graduating second in the Class of 1823, Greene declined an assignment in the Corps of Engineers and instead accepted a commission as a second lieutenant in the 3rd US Artillery.   Rather than join the regiment, he received orders to remain at West Point to serve as an assistant professor of mathematics and engineering.   Staying in this post for four years, Greene taught Robert E. Lee during this period.   Moving through several garrison assignments over the next several years, he studied both law and medicine to ease the boredom of the peacetime military.   In 1836, Greene resigned his commission to pursue a career in civil engineering. George S. Greene - Prewar Years: Over the next two decades, Greene aided in the construction of several railroads and water systems.   Among his projects were the Croton Aqueduct reservoir in New Yorks Central Park and expanding the High Bridge over the Harlem River.   In 1852, Greene was one of twelve founders of the American Society of Civil Engineers and Architects.   Following the secession crisis in the wake of the election of 1860 and the beginning of the Civil War in April 1861, Greene decided to return to military service.   A devout believer in restoring the Union, he pursued a commission despite turning sixty  that May.   On January 18, 1862, Governor Edwin D. Morgan appointed Greene colonel of the 60th New York Infantry Regiment.   Though concerned about his age, Morgan made his decision based on Greenes earlier career  in the US Army. George S. Greene - Army of the Potomac: Serving in Maryland, Greenes regiment later shifted west to the Shenandoah Valley.   On April 28, 1862, he received a promotion to brigadier general and joined Major General Nathaniel P. Banks staff.   In this capacity, Greene took part in the Valley Campaign that May and June  which saw Major General Thomas Stonewall Jackson inflict a series of defeats on Union troops.   Returning to the field later that summer, Greene  assumed command of a brigade in Brigadier General Christopher Augurs division in II Corps.   On August 9, his men performed well in the Battle of Cedar Mountain and mounted a tenacious defense despite being outnumbered by the enemy.   When Augur fell wounded in the fighting, Greene assumed command of the division.   For the next several weeks, Greene retained leadership of the division which was shifted into the newly-redesignated XII Corps.   On September 17, he advanced his men near the Dunker Church during the Battle of Antietam.   Launching a devastating attack, Greenes division achieved the deepest penetration of any attack against Jacksons lines.   Holding an advanced position, he was ultimately compelled to fall back.   Ordered to Harpers Ferry following the Union victory, Greene elected to take three weeks sick leave.   Returning to the army, he found that command of his division had been  given to Brigadier General John Geary who had recently recovered from wounds suffered at Cedar Mountain.   Though Greene possessed a stronger combat record, he was ordered to resume command of his former brigade.   Later that fall, his troops took part in skirmishing in northern Virginia and avoided the Battle of Fredericksburg in December.  Ã‚   In May 1863, Greenes men were exposed during the Battle of Chancellorsville when Major General Oliver O. Howards XI Corps collapsed following flank attack by Jackson.   Again, Greene directed a stubborn defense that employed a variety of field fortifications.   As the battle continued, he again assumed command of the division when Geary was wounded.   After the Union defeat, the Army of the Potomac pursued Lees Army of Northern Virginia north as the enemy invaded Maryland and Pennsylvania.   Late on  July 2, Greene played a key role at the Battle of Gettysburg when he defended Culps Hill from  Major General Edward Allegheny Johnsons division.   Threatened on his left flank, army commander Major General George G. Meade ordered XII Corps commander Major General Henry Slocum to send the bulk of his men south as reinforcements.   This left Culps Hill, which anchored the Union right, lightly protected.   Taking advantage of the ground, Greene directed his men to build fo rtifications.   This decision proved critical as his  men beat back repeated enemy assaults.   Greenes stand on Culps Hill prevented Confederate forces from reaching the Union supply line on the Baltimore Pike and striking the rear of Meades lines. George S. Greene - In the West: That fall, XI and XII Corps received orders to move west to aid Major General Ulysses S. Grant in relieving the siege of Chattanooga.   Serving under Major General Joseph Hooker, this combined force came under attack at the Battle of Wauhatchie on the night of October 28/29.   In the fighting, Greene was hit in face, breaking his jaw.   Placed on medical leave for six weeks, he continued to suffer from the wound.   Returning to the army, Greene served on light court-martial duty until January 1865.   Joining Major General William T. Shermans army in North Carolina, he initially volunteered on the staff of Major General Jacob D. Cox before assuming command of a brigade in the Third Division, XIV  Corps.   In this role, Greene took part in the capture of Raleigh and the surrender of General Joseph E. Johnstons army. George S. Greene - Later Life: With the end of the war, Greene returned to court-martial duty before leaving the army in 1866.   Resuming his career in  civil engineering, he served as chief engineer commissioner of the  Croton Aqueduct Department from 1867 to 1871 and later held the post of President of the American Society of Civil Engineers.   In the 1890s, Greene sought an engineer captains pension to aid his family after his death.   Though unable to obtain this, former Major General Daniel Sickles helped arranged a first lieutenants pension instead.   As a result, the ninety-three year-old Greene was briefly commissioned as a first lieutenant in 1894.   Greene died three years later on January 28, 1899, and was buried in the family cemetery in Warwick, RI. Selected Sources: Civil War Trust: General George Sears Greene at Culps HillLatin Library: George S. GreeneWarwick History: George S. Greene

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Critically evaluate the role of creative therapies in work with Essay

Critically evaluate the role of creative therapies in work with children - Essay Example For this reason, there have been a growing number of programs designed to work with troubled children through venues other than shelters and governmental organizations (Groves, 2002b). Many of these programs attempt to discover more effective means of reaching the child in a trusting, comforting environment that speaks to the child’s level but without ‘talking down’ to them. Group interventions are one means of addressing the problem while still letting children know they are not alone and have little to be ashamed of (Peled & Edleson, 1995). These types of group meetings, often held in shelters or other community center-type settings, tend to benefit children in the 6 to 15 year age range and work to group children together in age spans of less than 2 to 3 years (Peled & Edleson, 1995). This treatment technique is not recommended for children of preschool or younger age, however, because of their natural lack of focus and reduced dependence upon peer relationships to help them cope with issues and more impulsive natures. Very small children do not respond well to sit-down sessions so require alternate forms of therapy to be developed that meet their specific needs. Regardless of the therapy approach selected, the goal is always the same. â€Å"The therapist seeks to stabilize the child’s life situation, to help the child integrate the experiences of the violent events in an adaptive manner, and to work with the child to manage the symptoms that resulted from the trauma† (Groves, 2002b). There are a number of other therapies currently being studied that may be more successful than these approaches in bringing the discussion to the level of the child in a non-threatening, non-invasive way. Several alternative and less-threatening forms of therapy have b een devised that allow children to be treated in a less-threatening environment which matches the

Friday, October 18, 2019

Strategic Leadership Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Strategic Leadership - Essay Example From the above definition or explanation, real strategic leadership therefore means taking responsibility for the future but not forgetting what is happening today. It involves creativity, planning, and intuition to help reach desired and set goals. This form of leadership contains aspects of direct and organization leadership but the difference leis in the fact that strategic leadership affects more people, commits more resources and has wider-ranging consequences in both space and time. Thus making it of prime importance when it comes to the success of businesses or organizations. The very first is that strategic leadership encourages and promotes feedback. He explains strategically led companies depend on free flow of information and opinion and given the fact that a company is a complex, self-organizing and self-correcting system, any breach in feedback loops will be a threat to the company and this will affect growth. In other words communication, free discussions between all levels within and without the organization is a necessity. This will encourage intergrity, identity and focus. Secondly strategic leadership encourages and promotes loyalty and prevents powers struggle. According to Christensen man is a territorial and hierarchical being. He defines his territory, defends it and esteems it above all. When he finds himself in a context where a common strategy is not defined and communicated to him, he will struggle to protect his personal interests at the expense of the company. Common strategy therefore must be defined and communicated to the entire staff so as to motivate them to perform and fight for the interest of the company against competitors. He goes further to say strategic leadership is important for organizations and businesses because it defines processes and patterns. In the absence of this power struggles, bureaucracy, demotivation and wasted time could result. The tasks and

PRESSURE SORE MANAGEMENT IN ADULT PATIENTS Essay

PRESSURE SORE MANAGEMENT IN ADULT PATIENTS - Essay Example Furthermore, just as there are different terms for the same health care challenge there are a wide range of interventions that have been used over a long period of time in the management of pressure sore, with some even extending into the exotic in the form of magic potions, as the search for the right intervention in the management of pressure sores carries on (Ayello et al, 2008). The body of knowledge on pressure sores currently has expanded into a large volume of literature that is used as evidence in developing intervention strategies for pressure sores. Yet, quite often the value of the evidence received from research on pressure sores is quite often undermined by the poor research design, with particular emphasis on methodically sound empirical investigations and randomized controlled studies. This has hampered the expanding of the right understanding of pressure sores and the taking of correct informed decisions in the management of pressure sores (Ponto, 2005). The true inci dence and prevalence of pressure sores also remains a puzzle. ... These risk factors are classified under different heads consisting of medical diagnoses, co-morbidities and earlier medical episodes, patient demographics that include advanced age, anthropometric status, physiological status, nutritional status, functional status, psychological status, social behaviour and quality of nursing care. From the perspective of the importance of pressure sores to adult nursing two key aspects stand out in the risk factors associated with pressure sores. The first aspect is that many of the risk factors associated with the development of pressure sores can be found in a large proportion of the adult population in society, with particular emphasis on the elderly segment. The second is the inclusion of the quality of nursing care in the risk factors for the development of pressure sores, with the obvious implication that when nursing care is deficient or lacks the proper care elements, there are enhanced chances in the pressure sores overwhelming the nursing care provided to increase the negative outcomes for the patients (Bergstrom, 2005). In the upkeep of the health of society there is the need for greater emphasis in adult nursing, which stems from the rising trends in the elderly segment of population. Developments in the field of medical science have resulted in increased longevity of life, which is an important factor in the elderly population segment becoming the fastest growing segment of population. In 1980 the United Nations (UN) had forecasted that the number of elderly individuals above the age of 65 around the world would rise to 760 million in 2025. By 1999 the UN was forced to change the estimates of the elderly population above the age

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Teaching Methods Mathematics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Teaching Methods Mathematics - Essay Example In this principle of one to one correspondence it is a necessary for a full understanding of numbers and emphasized by counting with the child's actions like counting her fingers or counting her crayons. They also learn this principle when they count while playing like jumping and swinging. They can participate in this activity while counting out loud. A rule can make like counting 1 to 20, then another person's turn. At an early age they are now able to detect that counting was wrong if counting of numbers is reversed in order or skipping two numbers it is a violation to stable order principle. They may said that there's a counting mistake. If counting violated the cardinality principle with the use of the same medium - a toy, states that the number was one more or less than had been counted, They usually said that the answer is wrong. Therefore, toddlers are learning the counting principles, even though they may continue to make counting mistakes when counting larger numbers. Larger number like counting 1 to 15 have a difficult time to understanding. The teacher can help them and learn about numbers providing a concrete demonstration of number.

Weather, Hurricanes, & Solar Radiation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Weather, Hurricanes, & Solar Radiation - Essay Example There are hurricanes that first appear on June or July and that means they will stay a little longer than those hurricanes that appear in August (Elsner, 2009, p. 61). Generation of hurricanes begins to cool with the cooling of the water in late autumn. At this time, the weather pattern fails to favor the development of tropical development. North Atlantic seasonal cycle pronounces its peak activity during August and September where only 17 percent of activity happens beyond the three months duration of august to October (Elsner, 2009, p. 65). The examination of North Atlantic took into account the mean number of for all hurricanes in a year’s time and for total. North Atlantic experienced hurricanes every season due to the presence of the budget heat and seasonality effects. Budget heat effects influence the hurricanes to occur mostly from June through to December. During this time, there is perfect balancing of heat that earth absorbs inform of radiation. If this absorption did not occur, then the earth would have extremely high or low temperatures. The seasonal variability has many, but important parameters associated with the North Atlantic Hurricanes. One such parameter is the El Nino that is helpful in determining, through analysis, whether the season would be active. El Nino takes into account a number of atmospheric variables. El Nino has a characteristic of warm sea temperatures on the surface especially over the equatorial pacific. The temperature relates to westerly winds of up to 200-millibar on the sea. The El Nino also has a link with the Caribbean surface pressure and the western Atlantic. When El-Nià ±o occurs, stronger Westerlies bring fourth fleeing over the hurricane producing areas of the western Atlantic as well as generating higher surface pressure. These occurrences suppress the hurricane development especially if it occurs earlier than October to November. El Nino southern oscillation, therefore, plays a vital role in

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Teaching Methods Mathematics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Teaching Methods Mathematics - Essay Example In this principle of one to one correspondence it is a necessary for a full understanding of numbers and emphasized by counting with the child's actions like counting her fingers or counting her crayons. They also learn this principle when they count while playing like jumping and swinging. They can participate in this activity while counting out loud. A rule can make like counting 1 to 20, then another person's turn. At an early age they are now able to detect that counting was wrong if counting of numbers is reversed in order or skipping two numbers it is a violation to stable order principle. They may said that there's a counting mistake. If counting violated the cardinality principle with the use of the same medium - a toy, states that the number was one more or less than had been counted, They usually said that the answer is wrong. Therefore, toddlers are learning the counting principles, even though they may continue to make counting mistakes when counting larger numbers. Larger number like counting 1 to 15 have a difficult time to understanding. The teacher can help them and learn about numbers providing a concrete demonstration of number.

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Eassy 1 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Eassy 1 - Essay Example The theory of speciation can basically be traced back to a type of understanding of basic evolutionary processes. In this way, speciation is a way in which one can describe the way that different groups with innately different characteristics can arise from groups of a similar species that share a common split ancestry (Singh 2010). Such a theory can help to explain how animals such as ducks and other livestock first became domesticated and presented a clear shift from the common ancestry of the non-domesticated duck that has resultantly helped the domesticated duck to evolve to what can be noted today; a nearly flightless animal that carries a great deal more weight than its naturally occurring relative. In much the same way, environmental agents of selective pressures means that key environmental factors can influence the way that creatures adapt to the environment, or particular way of life that is most suited to the furtherance of their species within the given construct in question. This of course denotes the Darwinian theories of natural selection and can be evidenced by the way that certain species of fish have adapted to their respective environments as a way to better provide themselves and their offspring with the chance of increased survival. Conversely, an environmental agent of selective pressures denotes the ways in which certain environmental factors act upon creatures to adapt them to the particular way of life that is necessitated within their environment. Evidence of this can of course be seen in the giraffes of the savannah as they were increasingly necessitated to have longer and longer necks as a function of reaching the flora at the top of the tree canopy. In this way, environmental agents of selective pressures can alternatively be read as a type of natural selection. Lastly, with regards to the dispersion theory, this

Monday, October 14, 2019

Economic progress in Russia in the years 1981-1982 Essay Example for Free

Economic progress in Russia in the years 1981-1982 Essay Despite frequent changes in policy, Russian and Soviet governments were spectacularly unsuccessful in securing sustained economic progress in the years 1881-1982’. Assess the validity of this statement. Between 1981 and 1982, Russia underwent huge changes, particularly the in economy. Russian history is well known for its frequent changes in policy as the country faced revolutions, changes in regime, changes in leadership and not to mention its involvement in various conflicts. As a result, Russia’s economic policy was subject to major change apart from three key areas, industry, agriculture and the tertiary sector. These three areas of the economy remained a constant in its ever changing climate; however, many historians still argue that Russia’s economy was unsuccessful and poorly managed despite its frequent change in policy. Thus begs the question, ‘To what extent is this true?’ The Tsarist regime, for many Russians, was a period of economic instability as agriculture was seen as a secondary concern. Growth rate was not structured and growth rate fell considerably between the late 1890’s and 1905.[1] Meanwhile, other economies expanded leaving Russia struggling to catch up and some historians see agriculture as a reason for Russia’s economic decline. For example, Carol. S. Leonard argued that Russia’s grain production per capita GDP was lagged far behind that of America in 1913.[2] This argument shows how agriculture in Tsarist Russia wasn’t dealt with effectively and as a result, the economy suffered. On the other hand, some historians have pointed out that agriculture in Russia during the late Tsarist years were not so destructive. One argument maintains that actually, Russia’s agriculture grew and developed quite substantially pre- revolution. For example; from 1890 to 1913, cereal production per capita increased by 35%[3]. Although this evidence is hard to ignore, it is also difficult to turn a blind eye to the contrasting evidence which suggests that agriculture suffered under the late Tsarist regime and consequently, affected the economy as a whole. For example: â€Å"There was very little investment in agriculture in Imperial Russia and this lead to small yields and economic volatility when prices rose and fell†¦lack of investment in agriculture frequently caused grain prices to rise which caused famines†[4] Overall, although agriculture grew slightly during the Tsarist regime, ultimately it suffered greatly as did the Russian people. Looking at agriculture alone, Russia’s economy looked bleak however; industry had slightly more success during this time so perhaps the economy was not so bad after all. S J Lee puts forward a simple statement: â€Å"The periods of most rapid growth were in the reign of Nicholas II (1894-1917) as a result of the economic reforms of Sergei Witte (1892-1903)†[5]. This is easy to see, when one considers that in 1914, Russia produced 35 million tons of coal, ranking Russia fifth amongst the main producers.[6] Building on Lee’s argument, there seems to be a lot of evidence pointing to Sergei Witte as the main reason for Russia’s industrial boom. Upon taking office, Witte raised massive amounts of capital by securing a loan from France and raising taxes and tariffs and interest rates.[7] However, it is the development of Russian railways which Witte is perhaps most remembered for. Under his guidance the railway network grew from around thirty one thousand km to around fifty three km worth of track.[8] With Witte at the helm, Russia’s industry continued to develop with growth rates comparing well next to those of the United States and Germany. Witte has often been credited with modernizing Russia to such a great extent that its industrial boom continued long after he left his post as Finance Minister in 1903. For example, in 1913, Russia’s steel production stood at 4.9 million metric tons next to France’s 4.7 million, with coal and iron not far behind.[9] On the other hand, Witte’s industrialization policies were not always so successful. For example, between 1890 and 1899, Russia’s industrial growth stood at 8.0% whereas between 1900-06, it reduced to 1.4%[10]. His aims of modernizing came with a heavy cost and it was consumers who had to pay the price. Taxes were raised but only for the lower classes, indeed the wealthier classes were spared from taxation although their money was needed for private capital. Tariffs also caused problems as, although they protected Russian industry, they added to the cost of living.[11] Whatsmore, although some historians have credited Witte’s decision to seek loans from foreign investors, some remain critical. This is because the interest added to the loans had to be paid in a secure medium meaning, in order to pay off their debts, Russia was forced to export grain regularly, including during the famine of 1891.[12] Overall, although Witte made huge strides in modernizing the Russian economy, he was not entirely faultless. Industry picked up, but there were still issues and it was the common man who had to pay. The economy still suffered, although, arguably, not as much as it would have done without Witte. However, the tertiary sector also contributed to the economy. Although some historians critique Russia’s dependence of Western investors, these ties had corresponding benefits in the shape of trade. [13] Business also boomed within Russia with eight large banks emerging in 1899 which owned more than half the total bank capital. This provided free access for foreign capital, controlling important branches of the Russian economy, including the fuel and metallurgical industries. [14] Moreover, according to Robert Service, domestic industrialists and banks were thriving too.[15] This argument can be supported by the growth in towns and cities between 1897 and 1914. For example; the population in St Petersburg grew from 1’300 thousand (1987) to 2’100 thousand (1914)[16]. This shows that the economic growth had a positive impact on society and the country was doing well under the Tsarist regime. However, although to the naked eye Russia seemed to be doing well, their growth wasn’t so great. Compared to the other Great powers of the period, Russia was lagging far behind. Between 1894 and 1913, Austria-Hungary had a 79% increase in national income whereas Russia was lagging far behind with only a 50% increase[17]. This clearly demonstrates that Russia’s overall situation was not so great and actually, Russian people did suffer. When Lenin came to power in 1917, he brought with him a change in regime and economic policy including the introduction of war communism. War communism aimed to socialize the economy through state involvement. Rural areas were subjected to grain requisition which was forcibly removed by the military.[18] This inevitably was unpopular and caused much suffering and peasants who stored their crops were often wrongfully prosecuted. It was not just agriculture which suffered. Factories were nationalized by November 1920 and were geared towards war production.[19] Additionally, private trade was banned and rationing was introduced on consumer goods including food and clothing. War communism was, effectively a self destructive policy. Grain requisitioning meant more than three million people died of starvation by late 1922.[20] Moreover, money lost its value and people got by through a system of barter. Inflation shot up and multiplied 1917 costs by four million in 1922. Additionally, in comparison to the growth in city population during the Tsarist regime, people fled the cities. For example; in December 1920 the population in Petrograd fell by 57.5%[21] Lenin knew that it was time for a change. War communism caused more harm then good so Lenin came up with an alternative, the ‘New Economic Policy’ (NEP). Peasants were allowed to sell grain for profit and they paid tax on what they produced rather than giving it up[22]. Things also changed industrially and in the tertiary sector. Businessmen could own small or medium sized businesses however large firms were still state owned.[23] The NEP basically gave the people of Russia freedom and Lenin hoped that it would boost economic growth as well. However, in 1924, Lenin died and Stalin came to power. Stalin also brought new ideas and his own ways of modernizing the economy. In November 1927, Stalin introduced his policies of industrialisation and collectivisation with the aim of modernising the economy. They were supported by a series of five year plans, the first (1928-32) aimed to improve living standards and the second (1933-37) and third (1938-41) aimed to highlight and thus, amend, Russia’s weaknesses[24]. Industrialisation was relatively successful as by the late 1930’s many workers conditions had improved and they had acquired better paid jobs and unemployment was almost non-existent. Accounts from the time support this view: â€Å"Good progress was made†¦4’500 new factories, plants, mines and power stations were commissioned, three times as many as the first Five-Year period’[25]. On the other hand, industrialisation was harsh and lateness for work often led to employees getting the sack. Many prisoners also paid the price by working on the grand engineering projects and working in appalling and dangerous conditions. For example; around 100’000 workers died building the Belmor Canal[26]. Collectivisation was ultimately unsuccessful and peasants were in a worse position than ever before. The concept of sharing farms and thus, sharing salary meant there wasn’t enough money to go around and crop production fell too. For example: â€Å"†¦Grain shortages, combined with continued forced procurements, led to rural famine†¦Ã¢â‚¬ [27] However, some people benefitted from collectivisation such as Bertha Malnick: â€Å"We have more than 600 hectares†¦our farmers have built 70 new houses for themselves during the last few years†¦Ã¢â‚¬ [28]. However, it is reasonable to conclude overall that collectivisation was unsuccessful given the various sources which provide figures of those who died or badly suffered during Stalin’s reign. Stalin died in 1953 and Khrushchev took over. Khrushchev focused on DeStalinisation, distancing the USSR as far away from Stalin as possible. Khrushchev was keen to adopt a different economic policy with the aim of building on the country’s previous economic growth and amending its weaknesses and one way he did this was by abandoning the five year plans and starting a new, seven year plan (1959-65) which aimed to take advantage of newly discovered mineral resources and fit in with industry[29]. Khrushchev pumped a lot of money into agriculture and overall 40% of investment was put into the neglected eastern regions of the USSR[30]. However, the seven year plan had similar flaws to the previous five year plans such as mistakes in resource distribution. Living standards got worse, the opposite to what Khrushchev had hoped to achieve. For example; only five in one thousand citizens owned a car and in 1963, the USSR was forced to import grain from the capitalist west to compensate shortages.[31] There were successes during this time such as the rise in foreign trade however this can’t compensate for the huge failures experienced during this time. Khrushchev made an honest attempt to improve the economy however his plans backfired and once again the country was left to clean up an economic mess. Eventually, Khrushchev was removed from power and in his place came Brezhnev who did little to change the economy. The era of Brezhnev has often been described as ‘a period of economic stagnation’ but some historians believe that this is not fair. Like Khrushchev, Brezhnev wanted to focus on improving agriculture and living standards in Russia. Historians Gwyneth Hughes and Simon Welfare support this view saying: â€Å"†¦After the terror of Stalin’s reign and the chaos of Khrushchev’s, the Soviet Union was in for a period of stability, and that meant everyone kept their job and their perks for life.†[32] Brezhnev allowed farmers to work on state own plots which motivated them to produce as much as possible in order to sell the surplus[33]. This, in theory, should have been beneficial and shows that Brezhnev was trying to improve the economy through new methods however, he was not so lucky. In 1975, the USSR suffered another poor harvest meaning Brezhnev had to increase foreign exports to keep everyone fed. This was just another disaster in Russia but Brezhnev did little to help. His aim to improve agriculture and living standards meant he neglected industry and production rates continued to rapidly fall[34]. However, arguably his biggest flaw was his inability to change the already ridged economy. Brezhnev had new ideas but couldn’t fight the system and by the end of his reign, Russia had made little improvement. Historian Dmitri Volkognov best sums up the Brezhnev period saying: â€Å"If Lenin and Stalin, and to some extent even Khrushchev, were able to enliven the moribund ideology of Communism, it was quite beyond Brezhnev†¦Ã¢â‚¬ [35]. In conclusion, between 1881 and 1982, Russia experienced much hardship especially surrounding the economy. After analyzing this one hundred year period it is hard to deny that the statement ‘Despite frequent changes in policy, Russian and Soviet governments were spectacularly unsuccessful in securing sustained economic progress in the years 1881-1992’. The economy under the Tsarist regime had its faults and during and after the 1917 revolution, it was widely believed that the country’s economic situation would improve. However, from Lenin to Stalin and Khrushchev to Brezhnev, it seemed that no leader was able to sustain a long-lasting and successful economic policy. The economy grew as quickly as it declined and it has taken many years to make any significant progress since. Therefore, this statement is valid. ________________ [1] Heinemann Advanced History: The Modernisation of Russia 1856-1985 [2] Agricultural Productivity Growth in Russia 1861-1913. From Inertia to Ferment by Carol. S. Leonard [3] The Penguin History of Modern Russia by Robert Service [4] www.historymadefun.co.uk/Tsarism [5] Overview from Russia and the USSR: Autocracy and Dictatorship (questions and answers in History) by Stephen. J. Lee [6] Stephen J Lee [7] http://www.slideshare.net/russeltarr/tsar-nicholas-ii-and-industry [8] The Industrialisation of Russia by M. Falkus [9] http://www.portalus.ru/modules/english_russia [10] M. Falkus [11] A2 History OCR: A Russia and its Rulers 1855-1964 [12] A2 History OCR [13] S. J Lee [14] A History of the USSR [15] Penguin History of Modern Russia [16] M. Falkus [17] The Making of the Revolution, 1881-1905 [18] From Years of Russia and the USSR, 1851-1991 by Evans and Jenkins [19] Evans and Jenkins [20] The Russian Revolutions 1914-1924 [21] Evans and Jenkins [22] The USSR, Germany and the USA between the wars [23] Russia and the USSR 1905-1941 [24] The USSR, Germany and Russia between the wars [25] A Soviet view of the second five year plan from History of the USSR by Y. Kukushkin [26] Stalin and the Soviet Economy [27] European History 1848-1945 by T.A Morris [28] Everyday Life in Russia by Bertha Malnick [29] AQA A2 History Triumph and Collapse: Russia and the USSR 1941-1991 by John Laver Sally Waller [30] Russia 1855- 1964 Flagship History by D. Murray and T. Morris [31] The Soviet Economy 1917-80 by S J Lee [32] Red Empire. The Forbidden History of the USSR by G. Hughes and S. Welfare [33] www.ibguides.com/history/notes.ccom [34] Years of Russia and the USSR, 1851-1991 [35] The Rise and Fall of the Soviet Empire by D.Volkognov

Sunday, October 13, 2019

The Environmental Impacts Of Transportation Environmental Sciences Essay

The Environmental Impacts Of Transportation Environmental Sciences Essay Over the years, the development of road networks across the world has undoubtedly contributed significantly to the changing of the landscape. Clearly those involved in all aspects of the design and construction of roads will be very aware of the, often emotive, issues that surround this highly visible intrusion into the natural environment. According to Alo (2008) Central to any functional urban settlement is the level and extent of its transportation network. Road, rail and water systems constitute the modes of transport that have been fully exploited by major urban cities around the globe to facilitate the complete integration of the various segments of their economy thus stimulating development. Since these systems are not isolated, interaction between them and the environment often lead to not too beneficial consequences. Although, cities play key roles in the development processes, they are, in general, productive places that make more than a proportionate contribution to nation al economic growth. However, the very process of urban growth often brings with it deterioration in surrounding environmental conditions. As a locus for population growth, commercial and industrial activity, cities concentrate energy and resource use and waste generation to the point that both man-made and natural systems are overloaded and the capacities to manage these systems are overwhelmed. This situation is exacerbated with rapid urban population growth. (James, 2009) Urban systems and services (e.g., water supply, sanitation, public transport and roads) are increasingly congested due to population, commercial and industrial growth coupled with poor urban management. Natural resources (water, air, forests, minerals, land) vital to the cities economic development and to future generations are lost or misused through inappropriate urban policies. The radius of impact of cities on resources lying far beyond their boundaries is steadily increasing. Furthermore, urban areas are inu ndated in their own wastes and choked on their own emissions as a result of inadequate pollution control and waste management policies and practices. According to the American Society of Civil Engineers (2005), the degradation of transportation networks due to poor maintenance, natural disasters, deterioration over time, in addition to unforeseen attacks, leads to estimates of $94 billion in the United States of needed repairs for roads alone. Moreover, in a new era of climate change, it is expected, as documented in numerous studies (cf. National Assessment Team (2001), US Department of Transportation (2002), Smith and Levasseur (2002), Zimmerman (2003), Arkell and Darch (2006), Schulz (2007)), that the degradation of critical infrastructure, including transportation networks, can be expected to increase. At the same time, emissions generated through transportation are some of the biggest contributors to climate change and global warming. In Nigeria, the most developed of systems is road transportation with the roads mainly prominent in the various state capitals and inter-state highways. Projects limited to road rehabilitation, maintenance, minor construction, as well as to traffic management and regulation unlike new road construction, generally involve lesser environmental concerns. The roads are often constructed with no provision whatsoever to address problems such as the runoff quality vehicle emissions and other probable consequences of the road users activities. (Alo, 2008) Thus it is not unusual to find highways of mainly flushed shoulder passing through residential hubs, industrial estates and farmlands and since roads and highway surfaces are impervious, they serve as temporary sinks for various types of pollutants which are washed off during rainfall as runoff them to the proximate environment. Pollution from non-point sources such as highway runoff has therefore continued to be a major source of concern f or environmental regulatory bodies and other stakeholders the world over as they contribute to the pollutant load of the receiving environment, in most cases the water bodies and farmlands. This according to James (2009), results to a gradual degradation of the receiving water quality and an eventual impairment of the beneficial uses of such receiving environment. It is against these backdrops that this research work strives to investigate and explore the assessment of the environmental impact of the degradation of transportation network infrastructure in the form of roads. The research study therefore focuses on selected parks in Ilorin East local government. 1.2 Statement of the problem Vehicles serve as a direct and an indirect source of pollutants on the highways through normal operation and wear and via the deposition of solid materials picked up from the inner roads onto the highway surfaces respectively. Consequently, increased traffic volume tends to lead to increase in the amount of pollutants around the highway environment. (Alo, 2008) Thus busy spots on the highway have been observed to be characterized by poor runoff qualities; pollutant enriched roadside soil and obnoxious atmosphere. The resulting environmental damages or costs threaten the continued productivity of cities and the health and quality of life of its citizens. Cities have become major environmental hot spots that urgently require special attention in regional and in all environmental planning and management at the metropolitan regional scale. The Nigerian situation is further exacerbated by the reality of increasing large-scale importation of old/fairly used vehicles for use on the Nigerian highways. An Urban centre such as Ilorin has a wide network of roads which mostly bridges it numerous canals and the lagoon. Thus the need to identify, quantify and mitigate potential pollutants as a result of the transportation activities on these roads and highways is most necessary. This is why a research like this becomes fundamentally imperative for the sake of inhabitants of Ilorin metropolitan cities. 1.3 Objectives of the study The overall purpose of this research work is to investigate the environmental impacts of transportation in Ilorin metropolitan city. The study therefore is undertaken with the following specific objectives; To examine the extent to which transportation system of activities can impact on the atmospheric condition. To identify factors resulting from urban transportation activities capable of environmental pollution and degradation in the area under study. To come up with meaningful recommendation on how to improve environmental health through Transportation Projects that are environmentally-friendly 1.4 Research Questions In a bid to achieve the above stated objectives this research work will be designed to provide answers to the following questions To what extent can transportation systems or activities significantly impact on the atmospheric condition of the studied environment? In environmental education, how educated are drivers, trader in the studied parks? Do location of motor parks has anything to do with noise pollution in the society? Are there facilities for good management of transportation in the studied park? In what significant way can we improve on our environmental health through and reduce hazards that come from transportation activities? 1.5 Research Hypotheses For the purpose of this proposed research work, the following research hypothesis (Null) are formulated for statistical testing H0; 1 There is no significant relationship between transportation and environmental health in Ilorin East. H0; 2 Transportation activities do not negatively affect the atmospheric conditions of the natural environment. H0; 3 There is no significant ways through which environmental hazards can be prevented in Ilorin metropolitan city. 1.6 Significance of the Study The benefit to be derived in determining the environmental impacts of transportation in our society are immeasurable. Its benefits in enhancing public health and reduction of environmental hazards will be monumental. An important justification for this proposed study is that it will help establish the link between transportation activities and the state of human environment in Ilorin, Kwara State. It will also show us the degree to which the former can affect the latter in Nigeria. Apart from these, a study like this will serve as a book of reference to students/scholars, commercial bus companies, transport workers, politicians and road managers, who might want to further study and understand environmental impact of transportation in Nigeria. Furthermore, conclusion reached in this proposed research work will serve as a crystal guide to Government, political policy makers, ministers for road and transportation and motor park chair persons in Nigeria to identify which elements of policy area need urgent modification and which is not. This proposed study is also justified on the ground that it will serve as a frontier of knowledge to upcoming researchers who are willing to carry out similar research work. 1.7 Scope of the Study The scope of this research work will limit to examining the environmental impacts of transportation in Ilorin, Kwara State. The study therefore focuses on Ilorin East Local government are of Kwara State. The choice of Ilorin East Local Government is attributable to the convenience it promises in the conduct of the field work and fact that the local government is a metropolitan city which tend to have more operating motor parks than others in Ilorin. These include; ABC motor park XYZ motor park 123 park, and KKK park The study will focus on this area because it is an academic endeavour that is time bound. 1.8 Definition of Terms In a bid to ensure clarity, simplicity as well as avoiding ambiguity in this research work, the following major terms used in this project work are briefly defined for easy understanding. Transportation Environment Degradation Pollution Public health Please try to define the above terms, please make your definition brief and concise, you can use dictionary meaning if you want but please make the definition relevant to two things: first, your field of study (i.e., public health), 2nd it has to be define in the manner in which they are used in this project. I hope you understand?

Saturday, October 12, 2019

How childhood history and culture affects how we live as adults Essay

Childhood history has a lot to do with how we live as adults because certain childhood events could trigger something that would last a life time. Take for example if a child fails at something and the parent does nothing to help the child, the child will grow up thinking that failing is alright and that he or she will have a hard time in life with their job or in school or life in general. Many events from a persons’ life can stick with the person throughout their life like a thorn in the side. The event will every so often reappear in the persons mind when some event in the present triggers a familiarity with the past event and the person could go in to a state of worry or even worse shock. In this occurrence it could immobilize the person and result in a lackluster in th...

Friday, October 11, 2019

Business Management Study Guide

Sample Test-Chapter 15Student: ___________________________________________________________________________ 1. An organization expands its private Internet to connect with customers, suppliers, and other partners. This expansion is called its A. intranet B. extranet C. private net D. website E. domain 2. Effective communication begins with A. speaking. B. listening. C. the message. D. two people. E. breaking through noise. 3. When you want your reader to take a logical action, you should lay out your ideas in writing by A. most important to least important. B. least controversial to most controversial. C. egative to positive. D. positive to negative. E. least important to most important. 4. The study of the meaning of words is called A. lexicography. B. rhetoric. C. semantics. D. morphology. E. cartology. 5. Denise and Florence are talking on their cell phones. After Denise reads her a phone number, Florence repeats the number back to Denise. This is an example of A. feedback. B. encoding. C. decoding. D. medium selection. E. noise. 6. A manager needs to communicate about a routine situation with someone she knows whose physical location is not far from her office. Generally, which of the following should the manager use? A. videoconferencing B. telephone C. e-mail D. face-to-face meeting E. newsletter 7. Jason tells Giorgio his cell phone number, and Giorgio nods. Jason then asks Giorgio to repeat back to him the phone number he just gave him. Jason is trying to avoid a(n) __________ barrier. A. encoding B. decoding C. medium D. feedback E. receiver 8. An announcement of the company-sponsored picnic travels from the employees' social committee to the other employees through email. This communication is __________ and _______. A. external; informal B. horizontal; informal C. vertical; informal D. vertical; formal E. external; formal 9. Which of the following is a personal barrier to communication? A. poor speaking skills B. lack of trustworthiness C. differing frames of reference D. judging others' messages E. All of the above are personal barriers to communication. 10. Generally, people comprehend about __________ of a typical verbal message. A. 10% B. 35% C. 50% D. 75% E. 90% 11. The drawbacks of using e-mail include which of the following? A. employees can communicate when they are not at company sites B. reduces use of paper C. information overload D. reduced costs of distributing information to employees E. increased teamwork 12. The device that indicates how official communications should be routed is called the A. organization chart. B. organizational culture. C. organizational profile. D. grapevine. E. lateral hierarchy. 13. Top executives at XYZ Company want to let lower level managers know that XYZ is going to be acquired by ABC, Inc. How should they communicate this? (Assume that all of the choices are possible. ) A. send a memo to all managers B. send an e-mail to all managers C. call a meeting of managers D. post a notice on all bulletin boards E. schedule a conference phone call 14. The introduction to a business speech should A. lways contain at least one joke. B. consist of 20 – 30% of the total speaking time. C. get right to the point. D. contain significant details of the presentation. E. always contain an unrelated story to catch the interest of the audience. 15. A female professor uses sports analogies in illustrating her lectures to a group of male students. She is said to be A. a feminist. B. genderflexing. C. copping out. D. miscommunicating. E. ingratiating. 16. XYZ Corporation communicates its revised mission statement to all employees. This is an example of A. external communication. B. downward communication. C. upward communication. D. orizontal communication. E. informal communication. 17. Of the following, which medium is the richest? A. bulletin board B. telephone C. e-mail D. letters E. videoconferencing 18. The type of communication channel that develops outside the organizational structure and does not follow the chain of command is called a(n) __________ communication channel. A. vertical B. horizontal C. external D. formal E. informal 19. According to the textbook, MBWA stands for A. management by wandering around. B. management by walking about. C. management by wishing a lot. D. management by wandering afar. E. management by working afield. 20. Do you actually listen when they're talking? This is most likely a test of which personal barrier that contributes to communication? A. tendency to judge others' messages B. variable skills in communicating effectively C. inability to listen with understanding D. faulty listening skills E. stereotypes and prejudices 21. Compared to women, men tend to A. give more tactful feedback. B. praise more. C. be indirect when they don't know something. D. indicate a lack of certainty about something. E. make apologies. 22. Salvador speaks English as a second language, and sometimes has difficulty coming up with the exact word to express an idea. Salvador is facing a(n) __________ barrier. A. encoding B. decoding C. medium D. feedback E. receiver 23. Which of the following is a â€Å"don't† toward better nonverbal communication skills? A. maintain eye contact B. look away from the speaker C. lean toward the speaker D. speak in a quiet, reassuring tone E. smile and show animation 24. Speed reading works well for material that is A. unfamiliar. B. easy. C. dense. D. complicated. E. All of the above. 25. A study conducted by AT and Stanford University found that the top predictor of success and professional upward mobility was A. writing ability. B. nterpersonal skills. C. public speaking ability. D. intelligence. E. integrity.Sample Test-Chapter 15Key 1. (p. 486) An organization expands its private Internet to connect with customers, suppliers, and other partners. This expansion is called its A. intranet B. extranet C. private net D. website E. domain AACSB: 3 BT: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Kinicki – Chapter 15 #106 Learning Objective: 4 2. (p. 469) Effective communication begins with A. speaking. B. listening. C. the message. D. two people. E. breaking through noise. Effective communication begins with listening: paying attention to the words being spoken. AACSB: 3 BT: Comprehension Difficulty: Moderate Kinicki – Chapter 15 #60 Learning Objective: 1 3. (p. 492) When you want your reader to take a logical action, you should lay out your ideas in writing by A. most important to least important. B. least controversial to most controversial. C. negative to positive. D. positive to negative. E. least important to most important. This is a good strategy when the action you want your reader to take is logical and not highly political. AACSB: 3 BT: Comprehension Difficulty: Moderate Kinicki – Chapter 15 #121 Learning Objective: 5 4. (p. 75) The study of the meaning of words is called A. lexicography. B. rhetoric. C. semantics. D. morphology. E. cartology. AACSB: 3 BT: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Kinicki – Chapter 15 #80 Learning Objective: 2 5. (p. 471) Denise and Florence are talking on their cell phones. After Denise reads her a phone number, Florence repeats the number back to Denise. This is an example of A. feedback. B. encoding. C. decoding. D. medium selection. E. noise. Feedback is when the receiver (Florence) expresses his or her reaction to the sender's (Denise) message (the phone number). AACSB: 3 BT: Application Difficulty: Hard Kinicki – Chapter 15 #64 Learning Objective: 1 6. (p. 473) A manager needs to communicate about a routine situation with someone she knows whose physical location is not far from her office. Generally, which of the following should the manager use? A. videoconferencing B. telephone C. e-mail D. face-to-face meeting E. newsletter Lean media is generally best for routine situations. In order from high to low media richness: face-to-face presence, video-conferences, telephone, personal written media, impersonal written media. E-mail would be the best media to use since the manager knows the person and the situation is outine. AACSB: 3 BT: Application Difficulty: Hard Kinicki – Chapter 15 #71 Learning Objective: 1 7. (p. 475) Jason tells Giorgio his cell phone number, and Giorgio nods. Jason then asks Giorgio to repeat back to him the phone number he just gave him. Jason is trying to avoid a(n) __________ barrier. A. encoding B. decoding C. medium D. feedback E. receiver A feedback barrier is when the recipient doesn't respond enough. Jason wants Giorgio to repeat the number to be sure he heard it correctly. AACSB: 3 BT: Application Difficulty: Hard Kinicki – Chapter 15 #77 Learning Objective: 2 8. p. 484) An announcement of the company-sponsored picnic travels from the employees' social committee to the other employees through email. This communication is __________ and _______. A. external; informal B. horizontal; informal C. vertical; informal D. vertical; formal E. external; formal Informal communication channels develop outside the formal structure and do not follow the chain of command. In this case the announcement came from the social committee and was sent to other employees internally outside the formal structure of the company. AACSB: 3 BT: Application Difficulty: Hard Kinicki – Chapter 15 #99 Learning Objective: 3 9. (p. 477) Which of the following is a personal barrier to communication? A. poor speaking skills B. lack of trustworthiness C. differing frames of reference D. judging others' messages E. All of the above are personal barriers to communication. The choices in the question all refer to personal barriers to communication. AACSB: 3 BT: Communication Difficulty: Moderate Kinicki – Chapter 15 #82 Learning Objective: 2 10. (p. 490) Generally, people comprehend about __________ of a typical verbal message. A. 10% B. 35% C. 50% D. 75% E. 90% Generally, people comprehend only about 35% of a typical verbal message, experts say. AACSB: 3 BT: Comprehension Difficulty: Moderate Kinicki – Chapter 15 #115 Learning Objective: 5 11. (p. 486) The drawbacks of using e-mail include which of the following? A. employees can communicate when they are not at company sites B. reduces use of paper C. information overload D. reduced costs of distributing information to employees E. increased teamwork AACSB: 3 BT: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Kinicki – Chapter 15 #108 Learning Objective: 4 12. (p. 482) The device that indicates how official communications should be routed is called the A. rganization chart. B. organizational culture. C. organizational profile. D. grapevine. E. lateral hierarchy. The organizational chart indicates how official communications—memos, letters, reports, announcements—are supposed to be routed. AACSB: 3 BT: Comprehension Difficulty: Moderate Kinicki – Chapter 15 #94 Learning Objective: 3 13. (p. 473) Top executives at XYZ Company want to let lower level managers know that XYZ is going to be acquired by ABC, Inc. How should they communicate this? (Assume that all of the choices are possible. ) A. send a memo to all managers B. send an e-mail to all managers C. all a meeting of managers D. post a notice on all bulletin boards E. schedule a conference phone call This is a nonroutine, unusual event that requires the richest type of communication such as a face-to-face meeting. AACSB: 3 BT: Application Difficulty: Hard Kinicki – Chapter 15 #72 Learning Objective: 1 14. (p. 493) The introduction to a business speech should A. always contain at least one joke. B. consist of 20 – 30% of the total speaking time. C. get right to the point. D. contain significant details of the presentation. E. always contain an unrelated story to catch the interest of the audience. Because everything in your speech should be relevant, try to go right to the point. AACSB: 3 BT: Comprehension Difficulty: Moderate Kinicki – Chapter 15 #124 Learning Objective: 5 15. (p. 480) A female professor uses sports analogies in illustrating her lectures to a group of male students. She is said to be A. a feminist. B. genderflexing. C. copping out. D. miscommunicating. E. ingratiating. Genderflexing refers to temporarily using communication behaviors typical of the other gender to increase the potential for influence. For example, a female manager might use sports analogies to motivate a group of males. AACSB: 3 BT: Comprehension Difficulty: Moderate Kinicki – Chapter 15 #92 Learning Objective: 2 16. (p. 483) XYZ Corporation communicates its revised mission statement to all employees. This is an example of A. external communication. B. downward communication. C. upward communication. D. horizontal communication. E. informal communication. Downward communication flows from a higher level to a lower level. AACSB: 3 BT: Application Difficulty: Hard Kinicki – Chapter 15 #97 Learning Objective: 3 17. (p. 473) Of the following, which medium is the richest? A. bulletin board B. telephone C. -mail D. letters E. videoconferencing In order from high to low media richness: face-to-face presence, video-conferences, telephone, personal written media, impersonal written media. AACSB: 3 BT: Comprehension Difficulty: Moderate Kinicki – Chapter 15 #69 Learning Objective: 1 18. (p. 484) The type of communication channel that develops outside the organizational structure and does not follow the chain of command is called a(n) __________ communication channel. A. vertical B. horizontal C. external D. formal E. informal AACSB: 3 BT: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Kinicki – Chapter 15 #100 Learning Objective: 3 19. (p. 484) According to the textbook, MBWA stands for A. management by wandering around. B. management by walking about. C. management by wishing a lot. D. management by wandering afar. E. management by working afield. AACSB: 3 BT: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Kinicki – Chapter 15 #103 Learning Objective: 3 20. (p. 477) Do you actually listen when they're talking? This is most likely a test of which personal barrier that contributes to communication? A. tendency to judge others' messages B. variable skills in communicating effectively C. inability to listen with understanding D. faulty listening skills E. stereotypes and prejudices Faulty listening skills includes thinking about what you are going to say when the other person is talking as well as mostly talking about yourself. The test for this barrier is asking yourself, â€Å"Do you actually listen when they're talking? † AACSB: 3 BT: Comprehension Difficulty: Moderate Kinicki – Chapter 15 #83 Learning Objective: 2 21. (p. 480) Compared to women, men tend to A. give more tactful feedback. B. praise more. C. be indirect when they don't know something. D. indicate a lack of certainty about something. E. make apologies. AACSB: 3 BT: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Kinicki – Chapter 15 #90 Learning Objective: 2 22. (p. 475) Salvador speaks English as a second language, and sometimes has difficulty coming up with the exact word to express an idea. Salvador is facing a(n) __________ barrier. A. encoding B. decoding C. medium D. feedback E. receiver An encoding barrier is when the message is not expressed correctly. If English is not your first language, then you may have difficulty expressing exactly what you mean to say. AACSB: 3 BT: Application Difficulty: Hard Kinicki – Chapter 15 #76 Learning Objective: 2 23. (p. 80) Which of the following is a â€Å"don't† toward better nonverbal communication skills? A. maintain eye contact B. look away from the speaker C. lean toward the speaker D. speak in a quiet, reassuring tone E. smile and show animation AACSB: 3 BT: Knowledge Difficulty: Easy Kinicki – Chapter 15 #88 L earning Objective: 2 24. (p. 491) Speed reading works well for material that is A. unfamiliar. B. easy. C. dense. D. complicated. E. All of the above. Psychologists have found that speed reading or skimming may work well with easy or familiar reading material, but it can lead to problems with dense or unfamiliar material. AACSB: 3 BT: Comprehension Difficulty: Moderate Kinicki – Chapter 15 #119 Learning Objective: 5 25. (p. 493) A study conducted by AT&T and Stanford University found that the top predictor of success and professional upward mobility was A. writing ability. B. interpersonal skills. C. public speaking ability. D. intelligence. E. integrity. A study conducted by AT & T and Stanford University found that the top predictor of success and professional upward mobility is how much you enjoy public speaking and how effective you are at it. AACSB: 3 BT: Comprehension Difficulty: Moderate Kinicki – Chapter 15 #123 Learning Objective: 5

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Reparations: African Americans Justice Essay

The United States government should pay reparations to African Americans as a means of admitting their wrong-doing and making amends. The damages African Americans have sustained from White America’s policy of slavery have been agonizing and inhumane. Therefore, I am in favor of reparations for African Americans. The effect of slavery has been an enduring issue within the African American community. Many of us are cognizant of the harm racism brought to the African American race, conveyed through slavery, racial segregation and discrimination. African Americans suffered many atrocities, but the greatest damage done to them was the destruction of they’re original identity. African Americans no longer have a native language or any African customs to connect them to Africa. Today, African Americans are connected together because they all share a common foundation-the horrendous experience of slavery-and the great effort to conquer its lingering result. (www. AcedemicLibrary. com) Americans should realize the magnitude of slavery’s consequences on African Americans as a whole. Blacks were brainwashed and stripped of self-esteem and taught to be ashamed of dark color of their skin. Many African Americans have effortlessly tried to advocate â€Å"Black Pride†, trying to re-instill self-worth and being proud of our distinct facial and body features, and darker complexions. African Americans had zilch to begin with after the abolishment of slavery in 1865. Slaves were promised a â€Å"mule/ and 40 acres† and they didn’t live to receive it nor did generations to follow; because the American government has yet to live up to its word. The fruit of the slaves’ labor was stolen from the â€Å"land of the free†. The victims of the White people’s African slave trade never experienced such freedom. This race deserves compensation for the mistreatment Pongee Bryant it has suffered and continues to endure. Paying reparations to the descendants of African American slaves would bring about a tremendous improvement for the advancement of Black America. (Douglass, Fredrick, 1845, Narrative of the life of Fredrick Douglass). White Americans have profited from education, life experiences, riches that were handed down by their ancestors. As well, African Americans have been handed down the hardship of race-related issues, poverty, and the unknown history of their past. African Americans have constantly been inflicted with the social status of their low-income level in contrast with that of White Americans. America should be ashamed for their mistreatment of a race that did not ask or even desire to reside in this country. Yet, they still wear their ugly face of racism, and discrimination, and only seek to segregate African Americans, as if they were at fault. Americans may argue Blacks shouldn’t be complaining, whining, and to pull themselves up by their boot straps. Well, Martin Luther King once said â€Å"White America wants us to pull ourselves up from our boot straps, but we don’t have any boots†. (Shuttlesworth, Fred, 1999, A Fire You Can’t Put Out). The U. S. government has a moral responsibility to this race of people to compensate, African American’s because they were denied their heritage, religion, family, and culture. America alleges it is a religious-based country and their faith resides in God. The bible says: â€Å"If a man steal an ox, or a sheep, and kill it, or sell it; he shall restore five oxen for an ox, and four sheep for a sheep. † This country consistently contradicts itself in the way it wants to be perceived. If America has any belief in God, they should feel an obligation to compensate the African American descendants of slave ancestors. (Exodus 22, Bible). Pongee Bryant White Americans may argue that the country did enough when it passed the Civil Rights Act in 1960. They may also state America has enough resources and equal opportunity for each individual of every race to succeed. However, there is a huge wealth gap in social status among blacks and whites mostly because of oppression, discrimination and racism toward the modern day contemporary black. Whether anybody wants to admit it, there is still a glass ceiling (i. e. ,a status barrier) against African Americans. Reparations would bring African Americans justice and economic power in this country. There are numerous black reparation organizations which could receive the money and distribute it evenly among African Americans, to incorporate black-owned businesses, home ownership, and better education selective for young and old blacks. These reparation organizations could also invest money into smaller black-owned businesses, and other industries that would further the African American race, and ensure a rapid growth of African American middle-class and beyond. (Robert J. Brym/ John Lie, Sociology) The exploitation of African Americans in this country took on many forms through decades. The centuries of slavery in this country laid the foundation of our current relationship to America. From cotton fields to building America’s most significant buildings African Americans have helped build the wealth in this country. Yet, the African American race has endured the most terrorism from the Ku Klux Klan, lynchings, plantation jails, police torture and murder, and poverty. Slavery was a crime against humanity; and it still is in existence in many other ways and forms. America has created a system with, voter discrimination, drugs, and drug sentences to keep the African Pongee Bryant American man enslaved. The government should compensate the African American race and put an end to a never-ending oppression cycle. The government of the United States of America was instrumental in having pressured the German and Japanese governments into the payments of reparations to the people who suffered and survived the crimes and legacy of slavery endured during World War II. The government of the United States has also already paid reparations to the Japanese-Americans who were detained in concentration camps during World War II. America calls herself a fair nation: a civilized country which respects civil and human rights, encourages opportunity for and well-being of all her people, and can be trusted by other nations as a county whom honors her word. Well, America promised African Americans 40 acres and a mule and didn’t live up to her promise. America’s attitude and silence on reparations reeks of hypocrisy. (X, Malcolm, Biography of Malcolm X). America should also pay reparations to African Americans because they consistently want us to labor for their work and take all the credit. For instance America is at fault for African American dead and injured men who served and were drafted in the Vietnam War. America put young black men on the front-line of a war they had nothing to do with nor helped contribute to. America wanted a race that was not yet â€Å"capable† of voting but was competent enough to fight in a war. A race that did not have the option of drinking from any fountain, sitting anywhere on a bus, using any bathroom, however we were fit for fighting. The point is America constantly benefits from African Americans, but refuses to compensate African Americans for their contributions to this country. (www. AcedemicLibrary. com).