Monday, September 30, 2019
ACT I 1. While Shakespeare presents the world of Venice as a place of civilization, is slow turns into a place of un-civilization and disputes. For example, Roderigo and Iago wake up Brabantio and tell him that there are thieves in his house. In reply, Brabantio says Ã¢â¬Å"This is Venice. My house is not a grange.Ã¢â¬ This shows how Venice is not usually a place with interrupting events. . Shakespeare also shows how Venice is slowing becoming corrupt. This is demonstrated when Desdemona elopes with Othello. Brabantio orders a search to get Othello. When Othello tells the Duke Brabantio accusation are false another search is put in place for Desdemona for questioning. Desdemona tells her dad that she is married to the Moor, Othello. Brabantio then disowns Desdemona, his daughter which is a sign of Venice becoming un-civilized. This is showing un-civilization because in Venice it is highly unlikely for a white women to marry a black man and for a women to disobey her fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s orde rs. Since Shakespeare does not go into much detail about OthelloÃ¢â¬â¢s background, it seems as if his homeland is unimportant. Othello is referred to as a Moor which is a common name given to those who are from Africa. 2. Since Shakespeare starts the play with Roderigo and Iago, it to give the audience important information the plot. They both contribute to the exposition because they help the audience understand the situation through IagoÃ¢â¬â¢s and RoderigoÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view. Iago is a very intelligent, manipulative man and Roderigo is a foolish, gullible and stupid. Iago relationship with Roderigo is that he is just using him Roderigo is devastated to learn that Desdemona had eloped with Othello, so Iago uses this too his advantage. In act 1 scene 3 Roderigo says, Ã¢â¬Å"What should I do? / I confess it is my shame to be so fond, but it is not in my virtue to amend it.Ã¢â¬ This quote shows Roderigo talking to Iago about his love for Desdemona. 3. Since Iago expected to be promoted to lieutenant, and Michael Cassio got the spot instead, Iago plotted his revenge against both Cassio and Othello. Iago was close with Othello at the beginning and throughout the play continues to pretend to be friends with him but is not. This shows how Iago is not very trustful. The following quote expresses IagoÃ¢â¬â¢s angry towards the situation. Ã¢â¬Å"Off-capped to him, and by the faith of man I know my price, I am worth no worse a place. But he (as loving his own pride andÃ purposes) Evades them with a bombast circumstance Horribly stuffed with epithets of war, And in conclusion Nonsuits my mediators. For Ã¢â¬ËCertes,Ã¢â¬â¢ says he, Ã¢â¬ËI have already chose my officer.Ã¢â¬â¢ And what was he? Forsooth, a great arithmetician, One Michael Cassio, a Florentine.Ã¢â¬ The following quote shows how upset Iago is with Michael Cassio getting the promotion, and this is the reason why Iago is angry with Othello. 4. Since Othello is a black man from an unidentified part of Northern Africa, he is seen as an outsider in Venice. He was once enslaved and has gone on many harsh battles and journeys in many parts of the world. Yet, Othello has a tendency to try and find the best in people and he trusts many until it is proven that he should no longer have faith in them. Othello is well known to be a good general due to his past experience in war and he is respectful towards people even when they are not respectful to him. This can be seen in the following quote when Brabantio is very rude and disrespectful to Othello but he responds saying, Ã¢â¬Å"Hold your hands, Both of you of my inclining and the restÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ This shows how he is raining calm in a very heated conversation. When Othello speaks and interacts with other characters he is respectful because he is an outsider and does not feel comfortable as he would in his homeland. By marrying Desdemona Othello is able to feel less like an out sider in the community in Venice and Cyprus. 5. Since Desdemona was sneaky about her love for Othello her father, Brabantio did not know about Othello and Desdemona seeing each other. Brabantio is awakened late at night by Roderigo and Iago yelling at him that there is a thief in his house who has stolen his daughter, Desdemona. Brabantio and Roderigo have a discussion about how the Moor and Desdemona are seeing each other. The following quote shows the conversation with Roderigo and Brabantio talking about Desdemona and the Moor. Ã¢â¬Å"Brabantio: Raise all my kindred. Ã¢â¬âAre they married think you? Roderigo: Truly, I think they are.Ã¢â¬ Act I Scene I Page 19 Lines 187-190. The quote shows how Roderigo is informing Brabantio that his daughter, Desdemona and Othello are married. Brabantio believes that the Moor casted a spell upon Desdemona in order for Desdemona to fall in love with Othello. This shows that at the time women were expected to love a man that her father would approve of. The following quote is a conversation between Brabantio and Othello. The quotation shows how Brabantio believes Othello placed a spell upon Desdemona so that she would fall in love with him. Ã¢â¬Å"Damned as thou art,Ã thou hast enchanted her!Ã¢â¬ Act I Scene II Page 25 Line 83. The quote shows how upset Brabantio is at Othello because Othello and Desdemona are together. The following quotation reveals how Desdemona and Brabantio react toward each other about the marriage. Ã¢â¬Å"Desdemona: I am hitherto your daughter. But hereÃ¢â¬â¢s my husbandÃ¢â¬ ¦. Brabantio: God be with you! I have done.Ã¢â¬ Act I Scene III Page 41 Lines 213- 219. Brabantio could not accept the fact that Desdemona is in love with Othello. The quote shows how Brabantio tells Desdemona that he is disowning her and how he wants nothing to do with Desdemona anymore. It is important that Desdemona and her father separate at this time in the play because it allows Iago to put his plan of savage into action. Desdemona has no family anymore and now she is going to travel with Othello to a place of warfare. At this point in the play Desdemona is very vulnerable. 6. OthelloÃ¢â¬â¢s and DesdemonaÃ¢â¬â¢s understanding of their love and relationship are not equivalent to one another. Othello believes their love was founded upon his valiancy and torturous past. Desdemona feels that she fell for his sincerity and strength, thus intriguing her and gaining her love. When Othello must explain his love for Desdemona in the presence of her father and the Venetian council he explains he wooed her through his chivalrous stories and he loved her for her sympathy and aww, not because of qualities she possessed. He explained Ã¢â¬Å"My story being done, she gave me for my pains a world of sighsÃ¢â¬ ¦ she thanked me and bade me, if I had a friend that loved her, I should but teach him how to tell my story, and that would woo her. Upon this hint I spake. She loved me for the dangers I had passed, and I loved her that she did pity themÃ¢â¬ (Act 1. Sc. 3). Ã He in the end loved her for stroking his ego and she loved him for his bravery and heart, though he lacked in humbleness. Othello and Desdemona do not share a reciprocated love for one another. 7. Because Iago and Othello are contrasting characters, their manners of speaking are very different. OthelloÃ¢â¬â¢s character is very respectful to others. Even when he is being insulted, he remains calm. He is also very truthful and open with his words. On the other hand, Iago is duplicitous throughout Act 1. He often has double meanings behind his words. For example, he tells Brabantio, Ã¢â¬Å"An old black ram/ Is tupping your white eweÃ¢â¬ . This is a crude way of telling Brabantio that Othello has married Desdemona. This shows the difference between the characters. It is also significant since OthelloÃ¢â¬â¢s trusting nature is whatÃ Iago will use to betray him. 8. When the Duke of Venice tells Brabantio, Ã¢â¬Å"Your son in law is more fair than black.Ã¢â¬ this shows that not everyone in Venice shares BrabantioÃ¢â¬â¢s views on Othello. The Duke wants Brabantio to look beneath his son in laws skin and see that he is fair and deserves to be respected. He Senators and the Duke admire Othello and that is why the Duke defended Othello when Brabantio accused his of using Ã¢â¬Å"witchcraftÃ¢â¬ on Desdemona. The Duke then responded and gave Othello the compliment that he is Ã¢â¬Å"fairÃ¢â¬ . This word is troubling because it makes people think about OthelloÃ¢â¬â¢s race and how he is different from everyone else. Even the color of his skin has not prevented him from achieving high rank in the Venetian society. These achievements have earned Othello respect from the people around him. By reading the play Othello you are able to depict the Venetian society in depth. 9. Since BrarbantioÃ¢â¬â¢s says to Othello Ã¢â¬Å"She has deceived her father, and may thee,Ã¢â¬ it shows how Desdemona might betray Othello. This is very important because later in the play Othello thinks that Desdemona does betray him. The play show that women are viewed in society as being loose, and untrust worthy. 10. Since Othello is more of an outside he would fit in with the Turkish society. It is very important that Othello protects Cyprus because it communicates to the audience that the Venetian and the religion is superior, showing that Othello has much power. Act II 1. In Act 2 Shakespeare represents Cyprus as the land of partying and recklessness. This furthers the action of the play because it gives Iago a lead in his plan.Cyprus is described very highly by Othello in the following quote Ã¢â¬Å"How does my old acquaintance of this isle?Ã¢â¬âHoney, you shall be well desired in Cyprus, I have found great love amongst them. O my sweetÃ¢â¬ ¦,Ã¢â¬ Shakespeare uses Cyprus because itÃ¢â¬â¢s the perfect place to help Iago get revenge on Othello without any suspicions being raised. In Cyprus everyone lets is excited that they do not have to fight in the war and have a lot of celebrations. This furthers the action because Iago gets Cassio drunk and CassioÃ¢â¬â¢s lieutenancy gets stripped, the following quote shows Cassio upset that he got his lieutenancy taken away. Ã¢â¬Å"Reputation, reputation, Reputation! O, I have lost my reputation!Ã¢â¬ This builds suspense because the audience is starting to see how Iagos plan is slowly falling into place. 2. Since Cassio is handsome, trusting and brave he is a very unique character. He helped confort Desdemona when Othello was still at sea. The following quote showings how respectful, kind, and caring Cassio is to Desdemona, Ã¢â¬Å"Hail to thee, Lady and the grace of heavenÃ¢â¬ ¦ He is not yet arrived, nor know I aught but that heÃ¢â¬â¢s well and will be shortly here.Ã¢â¬ This quote shows Cassios respect towards Desdemona and him calming her down about Othello not being present. 3. Cassio is manipulated by Iago because Iago is planning to ruin Cassio so he can get the place as lieutenant. Iago learns about CassioÃ¢â¬â¢s weaknesses and uses them against him. This includes his drinking problem, which led to Cassio getting fired by Othello. Also CassioÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation for with women sets the basis for how Iago convinced Othello that Cassio was interested in Desdemona. Iago knows that by getting Othello to think Desdemona is cheating on him, that he will become extremely distraught. Iago uses BrabantioÃ¢â¬â¢s words to sway OthelloÃ¢â¬â¢s thoughts throughout the text. In the beginning, Brabantio said Ã¢â¬Å"Look to her, Moor, if thou hast eyes to see: She has deceived her father, and may thee.Ã¢â¬ Which means, she deceived me and she will most likely do it to you too. 4. As the audience reads through Act II IagoÃ¢â¬â¢s plan begins to unfold. It is also revealed to the audience that Iago has a way of identifying other characters weaknesses and then manipulating these weaknesses to his advantage. As Iago begins to share his plans and ideas the audience receives more insight into the plot of the story and what Iago has in mind next. Iago deceives people by always making them believe that he is keeping their best interest in mind. By having the other characters believe that he is Ã¢â¬Å"honest Iago,Ã¢â¬ as the characters come to call him, he is then able to persuade them to believe something or do something else that will help Iago with his plan. Iago is revealed to be a sly character with only his own interests in mind. A quote from Othello when Iago is speaking falsely is, Ã¢â¬Å"I had rather have this tongue cut from my mouth/ Than it should do offense to Micheal Cassio.Ã¢â¬ (Othello, Verses 236-237) This quote shows the readers how Iago sa ys one thing to other characters, when the audience knows that he wants to get rid of Micheal Cassio. Even though the audience knows that Iago is speaking falsely, the other characters in the play still have no suspicion about IagoÃ¢â¬â¢s plan of revenge. This dialogue is one way that we learn moreÃ about Iago in the second act. 5. Since Cassio and Iago are foils, the language they use to speak to others are very different. Cassio speaks more respectfully while Iago is rude and wit. For example the following quote shows how Cassio is speaking very highly and respectful when talking to Desdemona. Ã¢â¬Å"Hail to thee, lady, and the grace of heaven, before, behind thee, and on every hand Enwheel thee round.Ã¢â¬ (Act 2 Scene 1 Page 65 Lines 94-96) In contrast, Iago is very disrespectful to women especially to his wife, Emilia. The following quote shows Iago yelling at his wife to be quite. Ã¢â¬Å"Go to! Charm your toungeÃ¢â¬ ¦.What, are you mad? I charge you to get home.Ã¢â¬ (Act 5 Scene 2 Page 251 Lines 222 and 231) The quote shows how IagoÃ¢â¬â¢s dictions is far more ill-mannered in contrast to CassioÃ¢â¬â¢s language. Act III 1. In the beginning of Act 3, Scene 3 Othello is madly in love with Desdemona, but towards the end he becomes full of jealousy. Othello believes that Desdemona has had an affair with his once loyal lieutenant, Cassio. The reason he trust in such lies is because his good friend, Iago, has convinced Othello of DesdemonaÃ¢â¬â¢s dishonesty. Iago persuades Othello by feeding him false grotesque images of Cassio and Desdemona and Gplants DesdemonaÃ¢â¬â¢s handkerchief, a gift from Othello, in CassioÃ¢â¬â¢s room. Ã¢â¬Å"I know not that; but such a handkerchief- / I am sure it was your wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬â did today / See Cassio wipe his beard withÃ¢â¬ (Act 3, Sc. 3). What is most surprising is Othello, who quickly believes IagoÃ¢â¬â¢s statements. Othello, obviously not completely trusting Desdemona to be faithful, was most likely led to this paranoia after DesdemonaÃ¢â¬â¢s father, Brabantio, planted the thought of her betraying Othello after Brabantio was betrayed by Desdemona himself. With this proof, Othello has no option but to believe Iago and his persuasive and duplicitous dialogue. 2. Emilia develops a close relationship with Desdemona. Emilia and Desdemona bond over husband trouble: EmiliaÃ¢â¬â¢s bitter take on her married life with Iago contrasts with DesdemonaÃ¢â¬â¢s marriage to Othello. Emilia is honest even though she caused the mess with Desdemona murder, but she redeems herself, or at least gives a good shot at trying. Emilia who discovers the truth about IagoÃ¢â¬â¢s plotting and tries to reveal it. EmiliaÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship with Iago is not strong, and Iago uses Emilia as his tool. IagoÃ has no ability to love someone or something. This quote is proof that her husband uses her, Ã¢â¬Å"The ills we do, their ills (husbandsÃ¢â¬â¢) instruct us so?Ã¢â¬ (Act 3) 3. In the play Othello, Shakespeare uses a love token, DesdemonaÃ¢â¬â¢s handkerchief to symbolize a relationship between two people. Othello gave Desdemona a handkerchief, as a gift that represented their marriage bond itself. One problem that the handkerchief causes is that it was handled by almost everyone in the play. The main thing the handkerchief symbolizes is DesdemonaÃ¢â¬â¢s fidelity for Othello. When Cassio gets ahold of the handkerchief, Othello feels as though Desdemona has been unfaithful to him. When Desdemona is trying to ease OthelloÃ¢â¬â¢s headache she drops her handkerchief. Emilia picks it up and gives it to Iago, her husband so she could get on his good side. Ã¢â¬Å"I am glad I have found this napkin. This was her first remembrance from the Moor. My wayward husband hath a hundred times wooed me to steal it. But she so loves the token.Ã¢â¬ (Act 3 Scene 3 Lines 334 to 337) Iago then tells Othello that Cassio has wiped his beard with DesdemonaÃ¢â¬â¢s handke rchief and thatÃ¢â¬â¢s when they decide to kill both Desdemona and Cassio. Desdemona continues to look for her lost handkerchief and when Othello asks for it, she gets even more nervous. With DesdemonaÃ¢â¬â¢s handkerchief it made all of IagoÃ¢â¬â¢s plan to come togethe Othello Questions Act IV 1. The handkerchief of all things plays a key and important role in act four because it is what leads Othello to believe that Cassio has slept with Desdemona. Ã¢â¬Å"Handkerchief Ã¢â¬â confession- handkerchief Ã¢â¬â to confess and be hanged for his laborÃ¢â¬ (Act 4 Scene 1) this quote by Othello explains his thoughts towards Cassio and Desdemona seeing each other. Othello becomes very upset because the handkerchief was the first gift from Othello to Desdemona to represent his love for her. 2. OthelloÃ¢â¬â¢s character is changing by in the beginning of the play Othello begins as a noble guy who is a respected war hero, and loving husband. Towards the end of the play Othello becomes violent and insanely jealous husband who murders his own wife after Iago convinces him that Desdemona has been unfaithful. The following quote shows Desdemona being slapped by Othello Ã¢â¬Å"Othello: I am glad to see you mad. Desdemona: Why, sweet Othello! Othello: [Striking her] Devil!Ã¢â¬ This showsÃ how Othello slowly becomes less respectful towards Desdemona which is how his character is changing. 3. The effect when Othello slapped his wife Desdemona in public was that he was becoming an insane man and that he wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t fit to be the general anymore. Also the slap brought humiliation upon Othello because no one thought he would slap his wife that he was so loving and gentle towards. The following quote shows Lodovico speaking with Iago about Othellos behavior. Ã¢â¬Å"Is this the noble Moor whom our full senate Call all in all sufficient? Is this the nature Whom passion could not shake? Whose solid virtue The shot of accident nor dart of chance Could neither graze nor pierce?Ã¢â¬ When people saw this, they began to question OthelloÃ¢â¬â¢s judgment. This reveals the change in character within Othello. He went from a loving, nice leader unto an angry, abusive man. 4. The contrasting characters; Desdemona and Emilia, form an interesting and important relationship in the play Othello. Desdemona is very Ã¢â¬ËshelteredÃ¢â¬â¢ from the ways of the world and Emilia is very Ã¢â¬Ëdown to earthÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËexperiencedÃ¢â¬â¢. They have very different views on marriage Emilia states she would commit adultery if it gained her husband. The following quote shows their conversation. Ã¢â¬Å"Emilia: In troth, I think I should, and undo Ã¢â¬â¢t when I had done. Marry, I would not do such a thing for a joint-ring, nor for measures of lawn, nor for gowns, petticoats, nor caps, nor any petty exhibition. But for the whole world? Why, who would not make her husband a cuckold to make him a monarch? I should venture purgatory for Ã¢â¬â¢t. Desdemona: Beshrew me, if I would do such a wrong for the whole worldÃ¢â¬ .Desdemona states that she is loyal to her husband. One thing that is similar about these marriages is the lack of trust and patience reve al the fragileness of the marriage. This scene shows the womenÃ¢â¬â¢s private life and how they are not always the way the display themselves. Othello Questions Act V 1. Othello kills Desdemona because he was convinced by Iago that she was cheating on him with Cassio. He doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to have to kill her because she is the love of his life, but Othello feels so betrayed, upset, and angry that he thinks itÃ¢â¬â¢s the best solution. The audience knows that Desdemona was always completely loyal to Othello and never had a relationship with Cassio.Ã Othello thinks that he is solving the problem but really he is making a huge mistake. He is so distraught over having murdered her, that he kills himself as well. Ã¢â¬Å"Yet IÃ¢â¬â¢ll not shed her blood; Nor scar that whiter skin of hers than snow, And smooth as monumental alabaster. Yet she must die, else sheÃ¢â¬â¢ll betray more men. Put out the light, and then put out the light: If I quench thee, thou flaming minister, I can again thy former light restore, Should I repent me: but once put out thy light, Thou cunningÃ¢â¬â¢st pattern of excelling nature, I know not where is that Promethean h eat That can thy light relume. When I have pluckÃ¢â¬â¢d the rose, I cannot give it vital growth again. It must needs wither: IÃ¢â¬â¢ll smell it on the treeÃ¢â¬ The quote shows how he was struggling with choosing if he should kill her or not to. 2. After the death of Desdemona, Emilia begins to figure out IagoÃ¢â¬â¢s plan. Once Emilia is able to figure it while talking with, she begans to realize her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s true self. Before Iago was not very pleasant toward his wife, Emilia, but she never said anything about it because women were supposed to be obedient Emilia starts to speak out because she is upset of DesdemonaÃ¢â¬â¢s murder. Emilia says, Ã¢â¬Å"Do thy worst.Ã¢â¬ To Othello as he pulls out his sword on her even though she is unarmed but he is mad because she is defying a man and that was not allowed during that time period. Women were expected to be compliant, which is shown to later when Emilia says, Ã¢â¬Å"I will not charm my tongue, I am bound to speak.Ã¢â¬ This quote shows how women were not supposed to give their input into things. Because Emilia finally stood up for herself and others, consequently she was killed by Iago. 3. Before Othello kills himself he gives a long speech about how he should be remembered. For example he wants to be remembered as a person who loves strongly but not wisely. After he stabs himself he kisses Desdemona because before he killed her he kissed her and wants to do the same for himself. The following quotation shows this. Ã¢â¬Å"I kissed thee ere I killed thee. No way but this, Killing myself, to die upon a kiss.Ã¢â¬ Act V Scene II Page 265 Lines 420-421. He does confess to killing Desdemona and regrets it greatly. The Play as a whole 1. When Iago is describing his vengeful plan against Othello to his loyal companion, Roderigo, he explains that he is not what he will disguiseÃ himself to be. The quote Ã¢â¬Å"I am not what I amÃ¢â¬ (Act 1, Sc. 1) told by Iago could also apply to more than one of the characters. Desdemona, portrayed by her father as a timid and naÃ ¯ve child, is the one who betrays his trust by eloping with Ã¢â¬Å"The MoorÃ¢â¬ , Othello. Ã¢â¬Å"Your daughter, if you have not given her leave, / I say again, hath made a gross revolt, / Tying her duty, beauty, wit, and fortunes / In an extravagant and wheeling strangerÃ¢â¬ (Act 1, Sc. 1). Therefore, in the text, Iago is not the only character who pretends to be something they are not in order to trick someone else and disguise their underlying plans. 2. Since Iago destroyed OthelloÃ¢â¬â¢s life very cruelly, it is likely that he had several motives for his deception. In the beginning, Iago states that he felt betrayed that Othello had promoted Cassio to the position he felt he deserved. This was probably a large factor of his deception, since Cassio was targeted for murder in IagoÃ¢â¬â¢s plot. Another motive was that there were rumors about Othello sleeping with IagoÃ¢â¬â¢s wife, Emilia. Iago also causes DesdemonaÃ¢â¬â¢s death, saying, Ã¢â¬Å"Nothing can or shall content my soul / Till I am evened with him, wife for wifeÃ¢â¬ . In the end, jealousy of Othello seems to be IagoÃ¢â¬â¢s motive. He is jealous of CassioÃ¢â¬â¢s promotion, jealous of OthelloÃ¢â¬â¢s beautiful wife and feels betrayed by Othello. 3. During this play Iago is able to manipulate Othello threw his weaknesses which are self doubt, his race and that he is madly in love with Desdemona. Iago uses all of the characters weaknesses to catapult their downfall. Mostly, he wants Othello to pay for what he did by making Cassio lieutenant and not him. From the beginning of the play, Iago proclaimed that he would make Othello pay by saying, Ã¢â¬Å"I am not what I am.Ã¢â¬ (Act 1 Scene 1 Line 71) Othello is prone to jealously is afraid that Desdemona will leave him for a Venetian man. This also plays into his race because he always feels like an outsider throughout the whole play. One reason Othello was manipulated so easily was because of all the Ã¢â¬Å"proofÃ¢â¬ Iago was giving him. When Iago was telling him this information, Othello should have gone to figure out if it was true; if Othello would have noticed Iago was being dishonest. Desdemona ended up paying for Othello gullibility when Othello smothered her with a pi llow. Racial tension is heavy during the play because they really want to emphasize that Othello is an outsider and doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t belong in Venice. The only reason Othello has power is because he is the General, but even though he is the general he still is modest. WhenÃ talking to the Duke in Act 1 Scene 3 he starts off explaining how he is a bad poet but then says this elaborate and long explanation about his and DesdemonaÃ¢â¬â¢s love. From the beginning to the end Iago was able to manipulate everyone because they were all caught up in somebody or something else. 4. Since Emilia and Desdemona had different viewpoints on love, the play does not suggest whether or not Emilia or Desdemona is correct. Emilia and IagoÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship was not very loving, also Emilia said she would cheat on her husband which indirectly states she is not loyal to him. In contrast, Desdemona is very loyal and loving towards Othello, even after she was done wrong by him she was still loyal. This can be shown in the following quote when Desdemona is dying after Othello kills her Ã¢â¬Å"Desdemona: A guiltless death I die. Emilia: O, who hath done this deed? Desdemona: Nobody, I myself.Ã¢â¬ This shows how she still is remaining loyal to Othello by not saying that he killed her. 5. OthelloÃ¢â¬â¢s heroic and military proficiency allow him partial acceptance into Venetian society. This acceptance is temporary because he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t feel that he has been embraced by Venetian Society, he is both an insider and an outsider. On one hand, he is a Christian and experienced military leader, commanding respect from the Duke, and many Venetian citizens. On the other hand, being a black Moor and a foreigner in Venice also subjects Othello to some racism epically by Brabantio and Iago. The following quote shows Iago describing Othello and DesdemonaÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship Ã¢â¬Å"Even now, now, very now, an old black ram ewe. Arise, arise; devil will make a grandsire of you. Is tupping your white Awake the snorting citizens with the bell, Arise I say!Ã¢â¬ The quote shows a racial slur toward Othello. 6. The addition of Bianca, causes her to be more of a women stereotype. Cassio does not mistreat his wife unlike Iago and Othello. Bianca is not seen as much throughout the play. On the other hand, Desdemona is a brave and beautiful woman who stood up to her father, and traveled with her husband. Desdemona and Othello have a very strong relationship at the beginning of the play. Othello starts out very respectful towards his wife, but slowly is rude to her. Emilia and Iago are married, but Iago does not respect Emilia and he treats her badly, he says Ã¢â¬Å"To have a foolish wife.Ã¢â¬ He does not have any respect for her. Iago says rude things to Emilia and allÃ she does is try and please him. All three of the women have one thing in common, they all end up without a husband at the end of the play. 7. The play does reinforce racial stereotypes. For example, Othello is addressed as a moor, making it seem as though he isnÃ¢â¬â¢t at the same level as them in the social hierarchy. The following quote is an example of when Othello is referred to as the Moor. Ã¢â¬Å"Is this the noble Moor?Ã¢â¬ Even though he is called the noble Moor is he not address by name, which makes him seem more of an outsider. 8. I believe that we should admire Desdemona for her love. She did everything she could to make Othello happy. It is very unfortunate that Iago was able to manipulate Othello into thinking he had to kill her for something that she didnÃ¢â¬â¢t do. Ã¢â¬Å"I kissÃ¢â¬â¢d thee ere I killÃ¢â¬â¢d thee: no way but this; 359 Killing myself, to die upon a kiss.Ã¢â¬ 9. Shakespeare has placed a very small amount of action in the play and instead placed a large amount of dialogue. ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s reasoning behind this use of dialogue is to affect the reader by allowing them to get to know the characters more. This allows the characters to be characterized by what they say and by what other characters say about them. The readers then go through and are preserved through the eyes of others, mostly Iago, and this allows Shakespeare to help and give certain information to the audience. Also, the reader learns a lot about the characters through dialogue and dialogue helps the reader to feel more involved in the play. When Iago says, Ã¢â¬Å"I am not what I am,Ã¢â¬ the audience is able to feel more involved and to get more information regarding IagoÃ¢â¬â¢s characterization than in other parts of the play. 10. Because Iago is trying to get revenge on Othello for not being promoted, the main theme of the text would be jealousy. Iago is jealous of Cassio that he got the promotion to become lieutenant. The following quote shows how Iago is upset that he was not promoted. Ã¢â¬Å"I know my price, I am worth no worse a placeÃ¢â¬ ¦ say he, Ã¢â¬ËI have already chose my officer.Ã¢â¬â¢ And what was he? Forsooth, a great arithmetician one Michael CassioÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Act 1 Scene 1 Page 7 Lines 12-21) The quote shows how jealous Iago is that Othello chose Michael Cassio to be lieutenant. Another way Othello by William Shakespeare, shows jealousy is when Othello kills his wife because he thinks that she is cheating on him. It seems that Desdemona is cheating on Othello with Cassio, but she is not. Sadly Othello does not know that it is IagoÃ¢â¬â¢s plan to get revenge on Othello. Consequently, Othello kills his own wife. The following quoteÃ shows when Othello confronts his wife about seei ng Cassio, also the quote shows Othello killing his wife. Ã¢â¬Å"By heaven, I saw my handkerchief in Ã¢â¬â¢s hand. O perjured woman, thou dost stone my heart, (Act 5 Scene 2 Page 241 Lines 77-78) Ã¢â¬ËTwas I that killed her.Ã¢â¬ (Act 5 Scene 2 Page 247 Line 160) This quote shows how Othello was jealous that Desdemona was with other guys. Since the plot revolves around jealousy it is appropriate that the main theme in this text would be jealously.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
CT235: Introduction to duty of care in health, social care or childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s and young peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s settings (level 2) Overview Introduction The assignment for unit CT235 asks you to demonstrate your knowledge and understanding of the principles for duty of care in health, social care or childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s and young peoples settings. The assignment is designed to ensure that by completing all the tasks, you will meet the learning outcomes and assessment criteria for this unit. Tasks There are three tasks to this assignment. Task A : short answer questions Task B: complete table Task C : short answer questions Task A: 1.Understand how duty of care contributes to safe practice Please answer the following: 1. What does duty of care mean in adult settings? (Ref:1. 1) The duty of care is a legal obligation imposed on an individual requiring that they adhere to a standard of reasonable care. It applies to everyone, organisations, even if not directly involved with the person and ensur es the safeguarding of you and others whom you support. 2. Describe how this affects your own job role (Ref 1. 2) We are here to Ã¢â¬Ëlook afterÃ¢â¬â¢ vulnerable adults and we have a duty to protect and serve the service users to the best of our ability. Related reading: Explain Legal and Organisational Requirements for Dealing With ComplaintsTask B: 2. Know how to address conflicts or dilemmas that may arise between an individuals rights and your duty of care Complete the following table: Example of potential conflict or dilemma (Ref: 2. 1)Where to get additional support and advice (Ref 2. 2) 1. A resident who is refusing to eat or drink anything Try to persuade them to eat or drink, calmly explain the importance of them eating and drinking, if that fails report to a senior member of staff and document the situation. 2. A resident who is being violent, abusive or un-cooperative.Give them time to calm down , be patient and try and make them feel safe and supported. Maybe thereÃ¢â¬â¢s a reason behind the abuse and violence? Try and get to the bottom of it?. Talk to a senior member of staff and document the episodes maybe thereÃ¢â¬â¢s a pattern. 3. A resident is refusing to shower or wash or have their clothes changed. Calmly expla in the importance of washing and personal hygiene see if it helps if not document and report to a senior member of staff. Task C: 3. Know how to respond to complaints. For this task please explain the following: 1.The main points of agreed procedures for handling complaints in adult settings (3. 1) Policies and procedures are in place to be followed, we have a complaints procedure which is easily accessible to service users and their prospective families. We have them easily accessible so that the service users know that they have a right to have an opinion and there are ways for them to be heard. 2. How would you respond to a complaint (3. 2) Following the complaints procedure I would report the complaint to a senior member of staff and document the complaint as necessary. Introduction to Duty of Care in Health, Social Care or ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s CT235: Introduction to duty of care in health, social care or childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s and young peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s settings (level 2) Overview Introduction The assignment for unit CT235 asks you to demonstrate your knowledge and understanding of the principles for duty of care in health, social care or childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s and young peoples settings. The assignment is designed to ensure that by completing all the tasks, you will meet the learning outcomes and assessment criteria for this unit. Tasks There are three tasks to this assignment. Task A : short answer questions Task B: complete table Task C : short answer questions Task A: 1.Understand how duty of care contributes to safe practice Please answer the following: 1. What does duty of care mean in adult settings? (Ref:1. 1) The duty of care is a legal obligation imposed on an individual requiring that they adhere to a standard of reasonable care. It applies to everyone, organisations, even if not directly involved with the person and ensur es the safeguarding of you and others whom you support. 2. Describe how this affects your own job role (Ref 1. 2) We are here to Ã¢â¬Ëlook afterÃ¢â¬â¢ vulnerable adults and we have a duty to protect and serve the service users to the best of our ability. Related reading: Explain Legal and Organisational Requirements for Dealing With ComplaintsTask B: 2. Know how to address conflicts or dilemmas that may arise between an individuals rights and your duty of care Complete the following table: Example of potential conflict or dilemma (Ref: 2. 1)Where to get additional support and advice (Ref 2. 2) 1. A resident who is refusing to eat or drink anything Try to persuade them to eat or drink, calmly explain the importance of them eating and drinking, if that fails report to a senior member of staff and document the situation. 2. A resident who is being violent, abusive or un-cooperative.Give them time to calm down , be patient and try and make them feel safe and supported. Maybe thereÃ¢â¬â¢s a reason behind the abuse and violence? Try and get to the bottom of it?. Talk to a senior member of staff and document the episodes maybe thereÃ¢â¬â¢s a pattern. 3. A resident is refusing to shower or wash or have their clothes changed. Calmly expla in the importance of washing and personal hygiene see if it helps if not document and report to a senior member of staff. Task C: 3. Know how to respond to complaints. For this task please explain the following: 1.The main points of agreed procedures for handling complaints in adult settings (3. 1) Policies and procedures are in place to be followed, we have a complaints procedure which is easily accessible to service users and their prospective families. We have them easily accessible so that the service users know that they have a right to have an opinion and there are ways for them to be heard. 2. How would you respond to a complaint (3. 2) Following the complaints procedure I would report the complaint to a senior member of staff and document the complaint as necessary.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Students can be asked to make this analysis in class, or to prepare the case outside the classroom, and to present it. Ideally, the case work is conducted in groups of 4 to 6 students, and it typically takes between 1 to 1. 5 hours (for the analysis itself Ã¢â¬â obviously, drafting a written report or presentation is more time consuming). The Wal-Mart case is aimed at both undergraduate and graduate students, and for general management programmes/MBAs as well as finance students Ã¢â¬â obviously, for the latter group, a much more fine-grained analysis, extensive discussion and adequate linking among various financials and between the numbers and Wal-MartÃ¢â¬â¢s business is required. Evidently, the lecturer should highlight many more details in a class of finance students. In the teaching note, the authors first provide a detailed discussion of Wal-MartÃ¢â¬â¢s balance sheet, profit and loss account and cash flow statement, mainly based upon common base and common size analysis. While the focus is on 2009 figures, conclusions for 2008 would be broadly similar. Furthermore, they also provide an overview of some key financialsÃ¢â¬â¢ evolution over the past 10 years. Next, they calculate and interpret liquidity, profitability and solvency ratios for 2008 and 2009 and link these to Wal-MartÃ¢â¬â¢s business model and operating activities. They summarize the main findings in a concluding section. Finally, the authors include a slide show that can be used while teaching this case. Analyzing the Financial Statements of the Worlds Retailer Students can be asked to make this analysis in class, or to prepare the case outside the classroom, and to present it. Ideally, the case work is conducted in groups of 4 to 6 students, and it typically takes between 1 to 1. 5 hours (for the analysis itself Ã¢â¬â obviously, drafting a written report or presentation is more time consuming). The Wal-Mart case is aimed at both undergraduate and graduate students, and for general management programmes/MBAs as well as finance students Ã¢â¬â obviously, for the latter group, a much more fine-grained analysis, extensive discussion and adequate linking among various financials and between the numbers and Wal-MartÃ¢â¬â¢s business is required. Evidently, the lecturer should highlight many more details in a class of finance students. In the teaching note, the authors first provide a detailed discussion of Wal-MartÃ¢â¬â¢s balance sheet, profit and loss account and cash flow statement, mainly based upon common base and common size analysis. While the focus is on 2009 figures, conclusions for 2008 would be broadly similar. Furthermore, they also provide an overview of some key financialsÃ¢â¬â¢ evolution over the past 10 years. Next, they calculate and interpret liquidity, profitability and solvency ratios for 2008 and 2009 and link these to Wal-MartÃ¢â¬â¢s business model and operating activities. They summarize the main findings in a concluding section. Finally, the authors include a slide show that can be used while teaching this case.
Friday, September 27, 2019
Strategic Management Company Report - Essay Example This expansion program made it become the first international hotel brand to have a truly international presence with hotels in Latin America, Asia/Pacific, Middle East and Africa. The original goal by PanAm was to assist local entrepreneurs and organisations design, build and operate hotels in important international airway gateway destinations and traffic centres to enrich the international travel experience (InterContinental 2012b). Currently, InterContinental Hotels & Resorts comprises of 169 hotels globally that have a capacity of 57,598 rooms. It has also been named as the WorldÃ¢â¬â¢s Leading Hotel Brand for three consecutive years (2009 to 2011) by the World Travel Awards, the ultimate travel accolade worldwide (InterContinental 2012a). Also, the company is owned by the InterContinental Hotels Group (IHG), a mega-corporation that owns five other leading global hotel and resort brands. The other brands owned by IHG are Crowne Plaza, Hotel Indigo, Holiday Inn, Holiday Inn Express, Staybridge Suites and Candlewood Suites. Given that the InterContinental Hotel is a significant part of the IHG, most of the available research data is presented within the context of the IHG / group. For this reason, this report too shall evaluate this particular business within the same group context. 2.0. Analysis of the Internal and External environment According to Gillespie (2007) analysis of the macro-environment allows management to get a clearer picture with regards to external factors that are likely to change and which among these will have a greater effect on the future survival, profitability and growth of the organisation. In this document, PESTLE analysis is used to evaluate the macro-environment. Within the same macro-environment, Porter (2008) argued that there are five forces that determine the structure and profitability of any given industry. For this reason, this paper uses the five forces framework to analyse InterContinental HotelÃ¢â¬â¢s indust ry structure. This section also evaluates the internal environment of the company using strategic capabilities. 2.1. External environment 2.1.1. PESTLE analysis I. Political factors The InterContinental Hotels are found in over 60 countries across the world. This represents a diverse geo-political landscape that the company needs to balance. Political factors affect government policies which in turn affect either one or more than one of the five competitive forces that influence an industryÃ¢â¬â¢s profitability (Porter 2008). Two key areas that global politics has embraced is offering support for increased international trade and increased interdependence of national economies. This has naturally led firstly to increased business travel and then to leisure travel as the business travellers get exposed to new cultures and tourism sites. This implies that globalization Ã¢â¬â which Barnes (2008) referred to as increase in international trade, increase in interdependence of nat ional economies and increase in cross-border social, cultural and technological exchange Ã¢â¬â indirectly promotes the travel and lodging industries. II. Economic factors Both the Asia-Pacific region and in the United States (US) Ã¢â¬â
Thursday, September 26, 2019
DOES FUTURE OF MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING LIE IN STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING - Essay Example In the early days when people started conducting trade they learned to arrange financial information in a systematic manner. As time progressed further the concept of accounting gained popularity and people introduced several changes to make it more effective and useful for maintaining financial records. Management accounting is a branch of the traditional accounting system that is used by the managers to obtain the valuable information about the business. Management accounting plays a vital role in the decision making process. Managers use management accounting to derive information while making business decisions. With time the international business environment has undergone several changes. Due to the effect of globalisation, businesses have lost their geographical boundaries; therefore there has been a requirement of an accounting system that assists in understanding global business environments. The governments of the different nations are also more concerned in making the business activities more transparent by making the accounting standards stringent. Therefore, the management has to maintain an effective accounting system so that information regarding the external environment can be used to make the business policies proactive. Requirement of an effective and advanced accounting system has resulted in the development of a strategic accounting system. In the given project a thorough comparison will be made between management accounting system and strategic accounting system. The main aim is to analyse how far strategic accounting system is effective in overcoming the drawbacks of management accounting system and to assist managers in developing a sustainable business environment. Management accounting provides the information required by the managers for planning, controlling and decision making (Jiambalvo, 2007, p.2). In the process of decision making related to resources allocation, making
Case Analysis Leo Burnett - Essay Example Leo Burnett merged its operations with a similar company in the advertising business in 2001 (OÃ¢â¬â¢Neil). However, LB did retain its name. Janet Carmichael was virtual team leader who headed the operation of the company. Gaining trust as a team leader requires developing precise plans and objectives, which would define the nature of relationship that should exist between the virtual groups. It is evident that geographical differences separated the groups. However, the team leader did not develop precise objective, which could enforce trust among the teams. The case projects lack of trust among teams, which led to their poor performance. Success of any project depends on its implementation plan. Carmichael did not develop implementation plan that would define the kind of role each team would play. Coordination is an important aspect that the virtual teams did not embrace. Communication office is a pillar in any successful company. LB London and its sister company in Toronto had a communication lapse, which is responsible for the woes that the company faced. Team leaders should ensure that they develop mechanisms which would enhance communication and timely information delivery. It is apparent that telephone calls and emails are not enough for business to realize its success. Team leader must be able to meet the virtual teams, share their problems and success, and finally project the way in which the team should operate. Virtual teams must be able to see defined protocols, which handle the problems that they may be having. Meetings are very important, especially when a company has various teams working in different locations. Meetings help the leader to identify any lapse that his or her team is facing. This would create trust between the team and its leader. The case illustrates ineffective communication between virtual teams and its consequences to the company. It is apparent that team leader should device effective ways which would give reflective
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Fadiamn book, The spirit Catches You and You Fall Down - Essay Example Their different approaches and beliefs to Lia LeeÃ¢â¬â¢s condition, the miscommunication between the parents and the doctors, partly because of the language barrier, and her parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ refusal to administer the medication leads to worsening of the condition that leaves Lia Lee brain dead. Since the Hmong culture believed that illness was practically a matter of spirituality and sacrifices, they did not take their daughter to the hospital for diagnosis. It was only after several seizures that they decided to take her to the hospital. The American doctors diagnosed Lia with epilepsy and gave her medication to manage the condition. The parents reluctantly agree to administer the medication but over the next four years, the anticonvulsants do not take effect as the doctors keep changing her prescriptions. This causes Lia Lees parents to doubt the effectiveness of the medication and consequently refuse to administer the drugs to Lia. This decision makes the American doctors take ac tion against LiaÃ¢â¬â¢s parents and place Lia in foster care where she could be given the drugs and hopefully get better. However a few months after returning home, Lai has a massive seizure that leaves her brain dead. With death imminent, the doctors allow her to be taken home by her parents, who were still hopeful that they would be able to unite LiaÃ¢â¬â¢s soul with her body and hence were organizing a pig sacrifice that was part of the HmongÃ¢â¬â¢s rituals for uniting souls to their bodies. There is an evident cultural dissonance in regards to the HmongÃ¢â¬â¢s view of sicknesses as tied to their culture and the American medical culture. The Hmong tie sicknesses to spirituality and believe that sicknesses are a result of an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s soul leaving its body and keep wondering after being possessed by spirits. In order to unite the wondering spirit with its body, the spirit has to be appeased by offering pig
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Why is China characterised as a 'Party-State' - Essay Example (Haggett, 2002:2386). Facts surrounding the general governance of such a large country agree it is a complex matter to deal with. Formal examinations done in a number of cities within China conform to this claim. However, putting focus on structural party membership shows that what is happening is largely contributing to state-party character. This is evident in that, the State of China has a system of governance that does not allow any other candidate to vie for any seat in the general elections since it is a single-party state. Reformers characterize PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Republic of China as a state-party country due to several factors. For instance, since 1949 there has been only one party ruling all over the State of China (Shambaugh, 2009: 4). This party, Chinese Communist Party, often deals with dissents brutally and does not tolerate opposition. This State has bodies that that facilitate adjacent ruling throughout different channels of command within all its governing arms that inc lude judiciary, legislature, and executive. There are also other governing organizations and bodies in China that include; politburo, national peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s congress, courts and prosecutors, party elders, discipline commission, state council, military affairs commission, armed forces, and provinces and townships all charged with different powers and tasks. The most senior organization or body, politburo, is in charge of decision-making with its members facing no competition from anyone during elections, thanks to their survival instincts in a political culture whereby saying anything wrong can result to a life under house-arrest, or even worse. Politburos also make it to the top due to their abilities as well as their patrons support. It is the ruling party that dominates the over all outcome of these decisions made by the politburo. Additionally, people characterize PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Republic of China as state-partied because power stems in a dynasty for long. What elaborates this is the force granted to administrators serving in the ruling party. Influence of leaders runs across all those loyalties created by him or her within the organization of a family. In this case, Chinese belief that personal relationship with leaders from the ruling party counts more than a title of a job. A distinctive example of such scenarios is the way Deng Xiaoping continued being a paramount leader even after resigning from all his official post long ago. This reveals the reason why elders in the party are critical during critical decision-making. Moreover, the ruling party, Chinese Communist Party, established measures to curb the rising focus on ways of making China a multi-party state, as they would mean competition. Therefore, the party is strengthening its organizational tools by extending further to involve successful businesspersons in its organization. Within China, there is an existing belief that Chinese Communist Party is a by-gone thing and can barely withstand or su rvive in the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s modern globalization process (Burns, 2003:776). Nevertheless, the party is assuring itself continuum by reaching and gaining enough strength from other organizations and institutions within the new social strata of ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s executives. Consequently, from peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective, it is a redefined but still a centralized government. In addition, is has a central role from the same party, which has been in existence for a long time, hence characterized as a state-party country (Sato & Eto, 2008:654). Political analysts characterize the State of China as a state-party country since independent candidates are facing daunting obstacles to their wish in becoming leaders in PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢
Monday, September 23, 2019
Should immigration rights be stricter - Essay Example People from all over the world migrating to the host country introduce their own cultural aspects into the host society. Immigrants are one reason why language has changed in dialect and variety in many countries over the decades, that have been some of the top destinations for immigrants e.g. the UK, the USA, Australia, and Canada. It cannot be generalized or established that the effect of this change in culture of the host country is good or bad; in some ways it is good whereas in other ways it is bad. It also depends upon the interests of the institutions or organizations conducting the analysis. For example, when a country has a predominantly Christian population, people might encourage the enforcement of stricter immigrant rights particularly for the illegal immigrants; Ã¢â¬Å"Illegal immigration is the antithesis of ChristianityÃ¢â¬ ¦ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a gross mischaracterization of Christianity to apply it to tolerating the mass lawlessness, death and damages involved in illegal imm igrationÃ¢â¬ (Gheen cited in Piccalo) whereas film industry would have the opposite stance because the greater the variety of cultures in the society, the more vibrant the ideas and the more rampant the resources. Immigrants have a tendency to utilize all resources of the host culture, but not blend into the host culture in a way that makes them compromise their original values (Ã¢â¬Å"The truth aboutÃ¢â¬ ). Many immigrants coming from predominantly Hindu or Muslim countries with conservative values tend to maintain their unique identity even as they start living in the western culture. This comes as a hurdle in their social integration. It not only makes them vulnerable to racism, but also increases their tendency to engage in the acts of racism consciously or unconsciously while socializing with the people of the host country. The immigrants prefer to retain their original values not necessarily because they have lived with those values all
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Languages in Cyberspace Essay Governments have encourage industrial farming and non-organic meat production to improve the crop yield and revenues. However, studies have shown the side effects and health hazards of industrial farming and meat processing. A distinct cultivation of a health-conscious culture became apparent as time goes by which resulted to an increase in sales of organic vegetables and meat in the world. Hence, the sales and marketing of organic products is influenced by the culture or trend that exist in the market. Muslims are known for faithfully abiding with their religious beliefs and practices. When it comes in meat, Muslims only consume meat from slaughtered animals through the Halal way. Three times more blood is pumped out of Halal-slaughtered animals than those butchered in non-Halal way. Hence, lesser toxins are consumed by Muslims since most toxins are stored in the blood. With the introduction of organic aspect, an animal is not pumped with antibiotics and hormones or additives that would increase the toxicity its blood. Hence, Muslims are drawn to organic meat because of its inclination towards their religious belief in meat intake thereby creating an outward effect to the sales and marketing of organic meat. Language is a way of communication of thoughts, messages and feelings. In the global market, one barrier that must crossed by companies to reach out to their market is language. Without the right tools and strategies to cross this barrier, marketing a product will be difficult. A Firm must find a way to communicate and introduce a product in a language known by its market, otherwise, awareness and recognition of the product will not be achieved. This does not apply in the organic meat industry alone but to all industries and businesses. Marketing have evolved with technology through the years and e-commerce was introduced and adopted by most businesses. The worldwide web has a broader scope and the interaction with the customer is direct. In marketing organic meat products, e-commerce is the best way to reach out to its customers directly. It is also the cheapest way to market and promote a product. Longcloud should develop its website in languages other than English to cross the communication barrier that language created. If Longcloud develops a website with different languages, the scope of its accessibility and comprehension will be broader and more comprehensive. It will open the gates for the development of new markets in different countries. Moreover, with this strategic undertaking, the company will be globally competitive and accessible. The power of information technology can promote and increase the sales and distribution of organic meat worldwide. In choosing the languages to translate and include in the website, there are several aspects to consider and these are the opportunities, scope and target market definition. The companys website must be available in Arabic, Chinese (Mandarin), French and Spanish languages. Most Muslims speak Arabic and it was clearly identified that Muslims are one Longclouds target markets and about 150 million people speak this language. Chinese, specifically, Mandarin language should also be available to reach 1365 million people who have developed a fondness for organic meat products. Moreover, the growth of the organic meat industry in French-speaking countries like France, Canada, North Africa and Switzerland should also be considered. 23% of the current Internet users are from Europe which include some of these countries. Although only 2% can be accounted for the Spanish-speaking Internet users, a considerable target market was defined and identified in the Latin America. There several threats and disadvantages that must also be considered in making the website available in different languages like the uneven percentages of the target market with Internet access. However, with the growth of technology, many countries have relied in the use of Internet and it has become a household need. Moreover, although some people are accustomed to using English for conducting business, it must also be noted that, English literacy only accounts for about 50% share globally. Software complexities must also be considered, however, software upgrades and development are done continuously to address these problems.
Friday, September 20, 2019
Children and Nature in Poetry In numerous poems during the romantic period the themes are centered on children and nature. The themes are not just about children alone and not just nature but the two subjects together. This is to suggest that children and nature are connected, the two subjects are one. Poets during the romanticism era use the childhood period as sort of a looking glass into nature and its true aspects which seems to get lost once adulthood is reached. The poems in the romantic era are all about trying to regain that innocence that special bond that a child seems to be able to share with nature. Samuel Coleridges poem Frost at Midnight is set in the winter season with him describing his feelings about his infant baby. Coleridge realizes how special his child is and how his child is able to share a connection with nature. A connection, that Coleridge believes that he was deprived of For I was reared/ in the great city, pent mid cloisters dim, and saw naught lovely but the sky and stars(Coleridge 51-53). Coleridge here claims that because he was raised within the city he never was able to create that special bond with nature. Due to this fact he uses his child now as sort of that medium into understanding nature, since he himself lost that time of innocence to the city. Coleridge is pained by his bringing up in the city life and throughout the poem is rejoicing that his child instead will be able to grow in nature. But thou, my babe! Shalt wander like a breeze/ by lakes and sandy shores, beneath the crags/ of ancient mountain, and beneath the clouds.(Coleridge 54-56). The line Shalt wander like a breeze suggest that Coleridge believes that child and nature are one. The child will actually become a part of nature, a breeze and shall wander in nature by the lakes and sandy shores. Coleridge by the end of his poem is still hopeful for his child. That even when his child is grown, will still remember that humans and nature are one, he claims that God will help him maintain this status. Great universal Teacher! He shall mould/ thy spirit, and by giving make it ask. Therefore all seasons shall be sweet to thee.(Coleridge 63-65). Coleridge uses the child in this poem to show that children and nature are one. Through this poem the audience is meant to see that humans and nature are not separate entities but together they act as one single unit. Unfortunately as we leave childhood and begin our journey into adulthood we seem to lose that view of nature and ourselves and begin to see nature separately. Looking next at Wordsworth poem Ode Intimations of immortality from Recollections of Early Childhood Wordsworth also agrees with the Coleridge idea, that children are able to connect with nature. The only difference between the two is that Wordsworth believes that as every child is born, they immediately share a connection with nature and with heaven, that they are born with this connection. Coleridge on the other hand believes that this connection, yes, occurs during the innocent time of childhood but is not one that is guaranteed. For Coleridge this connection must be made, you are not born with it, for he himself says he never had the chance to connect with nature the way his child is able to. Wordsworth in this poem wants the audience to wake up! To see that we have lost our way and have been sleeping, he wants us to return to the mindset of a child There was a to,me when meadow, grove, and stream,/ the earth, and every common sight,/ to me did seem/ appareled in celestial light,/ the glory and the freshness of a dream.(Wordsworth 1-5). Children are the ones who are able to see nature for what is truly is. Heaven lies about is in our infancy!(Wordsworth 66). Unfortunately Wordsworth loses this way of seeing and thinking to the world as he begins to grow. It is not now as it hath been of yore; / turn wheresorer I may/ by night or day,/ the thinks which I have seen I not can see no more. (Wordsworth 5-9). Here Wordsworth is sadden that although he tries to see what he once was able to, he can not. Wordsworth believes that losing this mentality is inevitable. Our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting; Shades of the prison house begin to close/ upon the growing boy.(Wordsworth 58, 67-68). Wordsworth is sadden by this thought that we lose our innocence appreciation for the natural world. Yet he is reminded that he can still be happy for he still has the child and his memories to help connect to nature. Wordsworth uses his experiences and a child to keep him connected and Coleridge uses his infant to keep him connected. This is what it means when Child is the father of man. Of course the child can not care for the man, but still the child has something to offer. Just as a father offers protection and care for a child, the child offers the mindset and lens into the natural world. The child is a reminder that nature and humanity are one; they are intertwined with one another.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Today and forever in the future we will look back and reflect on the past, the good experiences, the bad experiences. However, the bad experiences always seem to be the most remembered. This is because the bad experiences the world has suffered have been horrific in many cases and have ultimately changed the way we live today. Authors and composers continue to recap the happenings of the past through novels, reports, movies, articles and much more. But do they really grasp the ideas? Do they really know how the people of the world suffered in the recounts they produce, when they really happened? It appears today that some composers have more ideas than others, what life was really like in these times and the way they present their work shows this. Two of many examples convey the times of the past to do with dehumanisation include; Ã¢â¬Å"One Day in the Life of Ivan DenisovichÃ¢â¬ by Alexsandr Solzhenitsyn and the film Ã¢â¬Å"SchindlerÃ¢â¬â¢s ListÃ¢â¬ directed by Steven Spielberg. SchindlerÃ¢â¬â¢s List is the true story of Oskar Schindler, a very well respected man. A native German, he relocated to Corocon, Poland after it fell into German hands so he could capitilise on Jewish labour at slave wages. There he established an enamelware factory and made obscene amounts of money, while wining, dining and bribing nazi officials to get his way. But while Schindler was profiting from the Jews work, he became disgusted by the way they were being treated. He slowly became more sympathetic towards the Jews, his attitude changing while realizing that what was happening was wrong and that he could do something about it. He began to use his money and his influence to bring more Jews into his factory, a haven where they were not beaten or killed. Or as Mr Welsh placed it; Ã¢â¬Å"Schindler used his power to gain things for himself then used it for the JewsÃ¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬Å"By the end of World War II., SchindlerÃ¢â¬â¢s List of Jews to be saved had grown to over 1,000, and he ended up spending his entire future to buy their lives from the NaziÃ¢â¬â¢s.Ã¢â¬ SolzheitsynÃ¢â¬â¢s novel; is based around the camp life of some political prisoners who were being prosecuted under StalinÃ¢â¬â¢s rulings. These Ã¢â¬Å"prison campsÃ¢â¬ were initiated by Stalin, leader of the Soviet Union from 1953 until 1956, who constructed one of the tightest and toughest CommunisimÃ¢â¬â¢s in history. In relation to this book; being a prisoner at a Ã¢â¬Å"special campÃ¢â¬ meant that you had rebelled against StalinÃ¢â¬â¢s system of government and you could face imprisonment unjustly with sentences for as long as 25 years.
Education is a precious thing that holds the future for all young human beings. It allows us to learn, to grow, and to become functional and responsible citizens of society and the competitive world. Without education, people will not be able to do the things that they want to in the future in order to advance their dreams to improve their lives and society. They will not be able to learn new things, new ideas, and new skills in order to advance the stages of human growth and development. They will be barricaded behind the barriers of ignorance, isolation, and despair. While students in the industrialized developed world have the right and ability to go to school and learn without barriers, it is not the same for the rest of the countries that are categorized as part of the developing world. Girls in developing countries such as Pakistan, do not have the full access and ability to go to school and are facing cultural, political, and economic barriers that are inhibiting the ability of these kids from entering school. The Pakistani government should take responsibility in solving the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s education crisis by reforming its education system to make it accessible for Pakistani girls who are not able to go school. Girls represent a strong majority of those who canÃ¢â¬â¢t go to school. According to an article by Omar Waraich from Time Magazine, Mosharraf Zaidi, the campaign director of an education advocacy group called Ã¢â¬Å"Alif AilaanÃ¢â¬ , stated that 61% of the 25 million Pakistani children who can't go to school are girls. Cultural barriers of male-dominated patriarchy, inherited from the era of British colonialism and traditional Indian culture as according to Latif, are one of the factors that prevent girls from going to sch... ...?" Education Economics 17.3 (2009): 329-54. Web. 9Ã Dec.Ã 2013. Callum, Christine, Zeba Sathar, and Minhaj ul Haque. "Is Mobility the Missing Link in Improving Girls' Schooling in Pakistan?" Asian Population Studies 8.1 (2012): 5-22. Web. 9Ã Dec.Ã 2013. Ghuman, Sharon, and Cynthia Lloyd. "Teacher Absence as a Factor in Gender Inequalities in Access to Primary Schooling in Rural Pakistan." Comparative Education Review 54.4 (2010): 539-54. Web. 9Ã Dec.Ã 2013. Kingston, Anne. "Teen Idol." Maclean's 126.48 (2013): 65-6. Web. 9Ã Dec.Ã 2013. Latif, Amna. "A Critical Analysis of School Enrollment and Literacy Rates of Girls and Women in Pakistan." Educational Studies 45.5 (2009): 424-39. Web. 9Ã Dec.Ã 2013. Waraich, Omar. "Ã¢â¬ËThere Are Thousands of MalalasÃ¢â¬â¢: What PakistanÃ¢â¬â¢s Teenage Activist Has Already Won." TIME.com. Time Magazine, 11Ã Oct.Ã 2013. Web. 9Ã Dec.Ã 2013.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Relationship between Sleep Habits and Personality Types Researchers have studied the relationship between sleep habits and stress, personality and stress coping, and personality and sleep habits. One factor that has been widely overlooked is the relationship between sleep habits and personality types. The purpose of this study is to examine a relationship between personality types and sleep habits. Evidence also shows that there is a relationship between personality and sleep. A study conducted by the director of the Sleep Assessment and Advisory Service at the University of Surrey in England, Chris Idzikowski, proclaimed that oneÃ¢â¬â¢s sleep position is related to personality. Individuals of different personality types were observed and catorgized as having one of six common sleep positions. The results showed that individuals who slept in the fetal position were shy and sensitive; flat on the back with arms down were quiet and reserved; on the side with arms and legs outstretched were suspicious; on the side with legs outstretched and arms down were social and easy going; flat on the stomach with hands at the side of the head were brash and gregarious; and on the back with arms and legs outstretched were unassuming and good listeners. (Idzikowski, 2003) Evidence shows that there is a relationship between the way individuals cope with stress and their sleep habits. Dr. Avi Sadeh conducted a study on students between the ages of 22 and 32 years, where the sleep patterns of the individuals were monitored by actigraphs and daily logs during low-stress and high-stress periods. The low-stress periods were those of regular academic schedules, while the high-stress periods were when the students were applying to graduate schools. Finding those "who tended to focus on their emotions and anxiety during the high-stress period were more likely to shorten their sleep, while those who tended to ignore emotions and focus on tasks extended their sleep and shut themselves off from stress." (Sadeh, 2004) . Another study examined the effects of personality on sleep patterns under stressors. Subjects between the ages of 21-33 years were monitored for three nights by polygraph recordings of their sleep. The individuals were broken into two separate groups based in psychological tests. The first group used active stress coping mechanisms, causing very little change in their sleeping patterns. The second group used non-adaptive coping mechanisms, causing their sleep structures to change significantly in response to stress. The study showed that individuals of different personalities have different sleep patterns due to the way the cope with stress. sleep :: essays research papers Relationship between Sleep Habits and Personality Types Researchers have studied the relationship between sleep habits and stress, personality and stress coping, and personality and sleep habits. One factor that has been widely overlooked is the relationship between sleep habits and personality types. The purpose of this study is to examine a relationship between personality types and sleep habits. Evidence also shows that there is a relationship between personality and sleep. A study conducted by the director of the Sleep Assessment and Advisory Service at the University of Surrey in England, Chris Idzikowski, proclaimed that oneÃ¢â¬â¢s sleep position is related to personality. Individuals of different personality types were observed and catorgized as having one of six common sleep positions. The results showed that individuals who slept in the fetal position were shy and sensitive; flat on the back with arms down were quiet and reserved; on the side with arms and legs outstretched were suspicious; on the side with legs outstretched and arms down were social and easy going; flat on the stomach with hands at the side of the head were brash and gregarious; and on the back with arms and legs outstretched were unassuming and good listeners. (Idzikowski, 2003) Evidence shows that there is a relationship between the way individuals cope with stress and their sleep habits. Dr. Avi Sadeh conducted a study on students between the ages of 22 and 32 years, where the sleep patterns of the individuals were monitored by actigraphs and daily logs during low-stress and high-stress periods. The low-stress periods were those of regular academic schedules, while the high-stress periods were when the students were applying to graduate schools. Finding those "who tended to focus on their emotions and anxiety during the high-stress period were more likely to shorten their sleep, while those who tended to ignore emotions and focus on tasks extended their sleep and shut themselves off from stress." (Sadeh, 2004) . Another study examined the effects of personality on sleep patterns under stressors. Subjects between the ages of 21-33 years were monitored for three nights by polygraph recordings of their sleep. The individuals were broken into two separate groups based in psychological tests. The first group used active stress coping mechanisms, causing very little change in their sleeping patterns. The second group used non-adaptive coping mechanisms, causing their sleep structures to change significantly in response to stress. The study showed that individuals of different personalities have different sleep patterns due to the way the cope with stress.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
The challenge you face is to create a coherent view of the world that expresses who you are as well as the person you want to become. It should be a vision that not only guides your actions but also enables you to understand the value of your experiences, the significance of your relationships, and the meaning of your life. The quality of your life philosophy is a direct result of your abilities to think critically and think creatively, abilities that you have been developing while working on activities presented throughout this book.But a life philosophy is incomplete until it is acted upon through the decisions you make, decisions dad possible by your ability to choose freely. These are the three life principles of human transformation upon which this book is based: thinking critically, living creatively, choosing freely. These three principles are interlocking pieces of the puzzle of your life. Working together as a unified force, these principles can illuminate your existence: an swering questions, clarifying confusion, creating meaning, and providing fulfillment.Think critically: When used properly, your thinking process acts like a powerful beacon of light, illuminating the depths of your personality and the reader of your experience. Clear thinking is a tool that helps you disentangle the often confused jumble of thoughts and feelings that compose much of your waking consciousness. By becoming a more powerful critical thinker, you are acquiring the abilities you need to achieve your goals, solve problems, and make intelligent decisions. Critical thinkers are people who have developed thoughtful and well-founded beliefs to guide their choices in every area of their lives.In order to develop the strongest and most accurate beliefs possible, you need to become aware of your own biases, explore situations room many different perspectives, and develop sound reasons to support your points of view. Live creatively: Creativity is a powerful life force that can in fuse your existence with meaning. Working in partnership with critical thinking, creative thinking helps you transform your life into a rich tapestry of productivity and success. When you approach your life with a mindful sense of discovery and invention, you can continually create yourself in ways limited only by your imagination.A creative lens changes everything for the better: Problems become opportunities for growth, mundane routines become halogens for inventive approaches, relationships become intriguing adventures. When you give free rein to your creative impulses, every aspect of your life takes on a special glow. You are able to break out of unthinking habitual responses and live fully in every minute, responding naturally and spontaneously. It sounds magical, and it is. Choose freely: People can transform themselves only if they choose to take different paths in their lives-?and only if their choices are truly free.To exercise genuine freedom, you must have the insight to understand all of your options and the wisdom o make informed choices. When you fully accept your freedom, you redefine your daily life and view your future in a new light. By working to neutralize the constraints on your autonomy and guide your life in positive directions, you see alternatives that were not previously visible, having been concealed by the limitations of your previous vision. Your future becomes open, a field of rich possibilities that you can explore and choose among.A life that is free is one that is vital and exciting, suffused with unexpected opportunities and the personal fulfillment that comes from a life well lived. Your Ã¢â¬Å"self' is, in its essence, a dynamic life force that is capable of thinking critically, creating, and choosing freely. These three essential dimensions of your self exist optimally when they work together in harmonious unity. When working together, these three basic elements create a person who is intelligent, creative, and determined- ?the ingredients for success in any endeavor.Consider the unfortunate consequences of subtracting any of these elements from the dynamic equation. If you lack the ability to think critically, you won't be able to function very well in most challenging careers because you will eave difficulty thinking clearly, solving complex problems, and making intelligent decisions. What's more, whatever creative ideas you come up with will be rootless, lacking an intelligible framework or practical strategies for implementing them. You will be an impractical dreamer, condemned to a life of frustrated underachieving.Without insight into yourself, your freedom will be imprisoned because you won't be able to see your choices clearly or to liberate yourself from the influences that are constraining you. F you lack the ability to think creatively, then your thinking abilities may enable you to perform in a solid, workmanlike fashion, but your work will lack imagination, you will be afraid to try origi nal approaches because of the risk of failure, and your personality will be lacking the spontaneous sparkle that people admire and are drawn to.You will in time become a competent but unimaginative Ã¢â¬Å"worker bee,Ã¢â¬ performing your duties with predictable adequacy but never rising to the lofty heights that you are capable of attaining. Your choices will be as limited as your imagination, and your habitual choices of safe and secure paths will eventually create a very small canvas for your personal portrait. You lack the ability to choose freely, then your abilities to think critically or creatively cannot save you from a life of disappointment.Though you may be able to clearly analyze and understand, you will lack the will to make the difficult choices and stay the course when you encounter obstacles and adversities. And though you may develop unique and valuable ideas, your inability to focus your energies and make things happen will doom these ideas to anonymity. Because y ou lack the will to create yourself as a strong individual of character and integrity, the people you encounter will come to IEEE you as a shallow-rooted reed that bends with the wind of superficial trends, not as someone deserving of authority and responsibility.Think of what you aspire to have: a life of purpose and meaning the respect and devotion of those around you, success and fulfillment in your chosen endeavors, and a secure sense of who you are, a person with the courage and vision to accomplish great things. These aspirations are within your grasp, but only if you develop all of these fundamental dimensions of your self to their fullest potential: the abilities to think critically, think creatively, and choose freely. Choose Freely You have the power to create yourself through the choices that you make, but only if your choices are truly free.To exercise genuine freedom you must possess the insight to understand all of your options and the wisdom to make informed choices. In many instances passive, illogical, and superficial thinking inhibits people's abilities to make intelligent choices and erodes their motivation to persevere when obstacles are encountered. This section is designed to provide you with a general framework for understanding the nature of free choice and the practical thinking strategies needed to translate his understanding into transformed behaviors and attitudes.You can redefine your daily life in a new light and enhance its value through free choices derived from thinking critically and creatively. Condemned to Be Free Man is condemned to be free. Condemned, because he did not create himself, yet is nevertheless at liberty, and from the moment that he is thrown into this world, he is responsible for everything he does. Jean-Paul Sartre This book is based on the conviction, articulated here by the philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre, that we create ourselves through the choices that we make, ND that we are capable of choosing different c ourses of action.But often we get so caught up in routine, so mired in the day-to-day demands of reality and the pressures of conformity that we don't even see alternatives to our condition, much less act on them. Our complaints often far outnumber our shining moments, as we tend to focus on the forces and people that have thwarted our intentions. Ã¢â¬Å"If only got the breaks now and then . Ã¢â¬Å"If only could get rid of my habitual tendency to I would . These complaints, and millions of others like them, bitterly betray W. E. Hanley notion that Ã¢â¬Å"l am the master of my fate, am the captain of my soul.It is much more common for people to believe that fate mastered them and that they never had sufficient opportunity to live life Ã¢â¬Ëtheir way. Ã¢â¬ Instead of feeling free, we often feel beleaguered, trying desperately to prevent our small dinghy from getting swamped in life's giant swells, rather than serenely charting a straight course in our sleek sailboat. The end resu lt is that when people think of Ã¢â¬Å"being free,Ã¢â¬ they often conjure up a romantic notion of Ã¢â¬Å"getting away/' from their concerns and responsibilities, imagining a world where anything is possible and there is plenty of money to pay for it.However appealing this fantasy may be, it is a misconceived and unrealistic notion of freedom. Genuine freedom consists of making thoughtful choices from among the available options, choices that reflect your genuine desires and deepest values, resisting the pressures to surrender your autonomy to external pressures or internal forces. The most important and disturbing element of personal freedom is that it necessarily involves personal responsibility. And personal responsibility is the main reason why people are reluctant to embrace their freedom and in fact actively seek to Ã¢â¬Å"escapeÃ¢â¬ from it.If you acknowledge author choices are ere, then you must accept that you are responsible for the outcome of your choices. When you a re successful, it is easy to take full responsibility for your success. But when failure occurs, people tend to dive for cover, blaming others or forces outside of their control. This is exactly what's going on in all the preceding Ã¢â¬Å"If only' statements and many others like them: they each express the belief that if only some outside force had not intervened, people would have achieved the goals they set for themselves.However, in many instances, these explanations are bogus, and these efforts to escape from redeem are illegitimate. They represent weak and inauthentic attempts to deny freedom and responsibility. Free Choice: The Mainspring of Human Action Every day we are confronted with the mystery of human action. One person commits an armed robbery, killing a guard in the process. Another person is found to have embezzled large sums of money from the charitable organization he directed. A firefighter risks his life to save the life of an infant trapped in a burning building. A peaceful protest gets out of control and turns into a violent and destructive altercation. A respected member of the immunity is accused of abusing the children on the teams that he coached. Two teenagers are accused of murdering their newborn infant and dumping the body in a garbage container. An 84-year-old woman who spent her life cleaning the homes of others donates her life a local college with which she had no previous relationship. In each of these instances, and countless others, we struggle to understand Ã¢â¬Å"why/' people acted the way they did.Our answers typically depend on our deepest beliefs about the nature of the human self. For example: Human nature: Ã¢â¬Å"I believe in human nature; people are born with certain basic instincts that influence and determine how they behave. Ã¢â¬ Based on this view, the actions described previously, whether Ã¢â¬Å"goodÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"evil,Ã¢â¬ are no more than the natural expression of a universal nature that is genetically hardwired into every person. From this perspective, we should no more hold people responsible for their destructive actions than we would an animal in the wild that kills in order to survive.There is no possibility of free choice because our actions necessarily follow from our inborn nature, and we cannot be other than who we are. Whether you act virtuously or destructively in your life is ally beyond your control, and you cannot alter your fundamental character. The environment: Ã¢â¬Å"l believe that people are shaped by their environment, conditioned by their experiences to be the kind Of people they are. Ã¢â¬ From this vantage point, the actions described previously are the direct products of the life experiences that the individuals had.If the environment in which a person developed was deprived or abusive, then these forces shaped a violent individual with little regard for the rights or lives of others. On the other hand, if you were fortunate enough to grow up in a loving and nurturing environment in which kindness and empathy were considered paramount values, then this upbringing shaped who you are. But once again, you cannot be held responsible for how you turned out because you didn't choose your environment; you were a passive agent molded by forces beyond your control. And, of course, you are incapable of making free choices.We should no more condemn the embezzler than we should reward the firefighter who risks his life, since they are each merely products of environments that are ultimately responsible for their behavior. Psychological forces: Ã¢â¬Å"l believe that people are governed by psychological ores, many of them unconscious, that cause them to think, feel, and act in certain ways. Ã¢â¬ Based on this point of view, the actions described previously are the direct result of deep psychological impulses that have been formed by people's earliest relationships and experiences.Although these people may think they are choosing to do the thi ngs, in reality, they are puppets manipulated by unseen psychological strings. The same is true for you. So when the coach sexually abused the children on his teams, he was not actually choosing this reprehensible course of action, he was impelled by psychological forces over which he had no control. Similarly, your behavior results from psychological motivations, often repressed, that form the basic structure of your personality. Your feelings of freedom are illusory.Social dynamics: Ã¢â¬Å"l believe that we are social creatures that are greatly influenced by the people around us. Ã¢â¬ From this perspective, people's behavior results in large measure from the forces exerted by those around them. The need to conform to the prevailing norms, to be accepted by the groups to which you belong, to please those who are close to you, to obey those in sections of authority-?these and other social needs determine your behavior and define who you are as an individual. For example, the viol ent actions of the initially peaceful demonstrators can be understood only by examining the dynamics of social interaction.Since the group as a whole is to blame, responsibility is removed from the individuals. In the same way, individuals who act illegally (or immorally) within an organization often seek to be exonerated on the grounds that they were merely acting as cogs in the machine, not independent agents. An extreme version of this occurred after World War II at the Murderer trials when many people accused of wartime atrocities explained that they were Ã¢â¬Å"only following orders. Ã¢â¬ Thinking Activity 12. 1: Your Theory of Human Behavior Think about some of the actions described at the beginning of this section.How would you explain why those people acted in the ways that they did? Which of the above theories make the most sense to you? Do you have your own theory to explain why people behave the way they do? Creating Yourself Through Free Choices If we examine all of t hese beliefs regarding the nature of human beings, we can see that they have several significant things in common: These beliefs represent attempts to explain human behavior in terms of factors that precede the action: a universal human nature, past experiences, psychological forces, and social dynamics.In other words, all of these beliefs assume that the Ã¢â¬Å"essenceÃ¢â¬ of a person, as defined by the factors identified previously, comes before the human actions and in fact causes these actions to take place. As a result, all of these beliefs about the human self have the effect of removing responsibility from the individual for his actions. If what you did was the direct result of human nature, past experiences, psychological forces, or social dynamics, then you cannot be held accountable. You didn't have a choice, your behavior was outside of your control.As a final consequence, these beliefs about the self limit future possibilities. If your thoughts, feelings, and actions are caused by forces beyond your control, then you do not have it in your power to change, to alter direction, to improve-?any more than a puppet can decide to act independently and contrary to the wishes of the puppeteer. From a framework rooted in human freedom, these traditional perspectives regarding the nature of people can be dangerous and destructive. One of the most passionate and articulate modern exponents of individual freedom was Jean-Paul Sartre.His position is extreme-?you are completely free. You create yourself entirely through the free choices that you make every day of your life. Though you may try to pretend otherwise, the reality is that you are the originator of your actions, the master of your fate and the captain of your soul, for better or for worse. You may choose to surrender control of your life to other individuals or organizations, but this is ultimately a free choice that you make and for which you are completely responsible. Let's revisit the examples identified previously and analyze them from this perspective.Free choice: Ã¢â¬Å"l believe that people are free to choose their courses of action, and that they should be held responsible for the choices they make. Ã¢â¬ The person who committed the armed robbery and murdered the guard freely chose to steal money and he is completely responsible. He was not compelled to act in this fashion; he could have chosen not to. The person who embezzled money from the charitable organization which he headed freely chose to betray his trusted position out of greed and should be held fully accountable.The heroic firefighter freely chose to overcome his natural fear of death and risk his life to save someone else's, and he should be awarded full credit for his heroism. The child abuser freely chose to surrender to his destructive sexual impulses, and he deserves to be condemned and fully punished. The infant-murdering teenagers freely chose to deal with their fear of having an unwanted child b y killing it and trying to hide the body (despite having many other alternatives available), and they should be held fully responsible for their choice.The philanthropic senior citizen freely chose to neonate her money to improve educational opportunities for underprivileged young people rather than spending the money on herself, and she deserves to be praised for her altruism. Each of these people had other alternatives available to them, and they could have made different choices-?but they didn't. Therefore, they must be held responsible for the choices that they did make. But surely, you might be thinking, I can't be held completely responsible for my life. After all, there are many factors outside of my control, people and forces that do create obstacles and undermine my efforts.And we are subject o pressures and influences from within ourselves: feelings of greed, fear of death, altruistic impulses, sexual compulsions, need for social acceptance, and so on. Still, it is up to u s to freely choose which impulses, motivations, fears, and desires we want to act in accordance with. In other words, it is up to you, your Ã¢â¬Å"self. Ã¢â¬ You make the ultimate choice regarding who you want to become and the direction of your life. When you look in the mirror, the person that you see reflected is the person you have created.If you are pleased with who you are and the state of your life, then you have every right to feel proud. On the other hand, if you are dissatisfied with the person you have become and disappointed with the course of your life, then you have to look no further than yourself to determine who is responsible. You must have the courage to accept full responsibility for your situation, but it is within your power to change, to improve yourself and your life through the free choices that you are able to make. Sartre characterizes humans as the one living creature whose Ã¢â¬Å"existenceÃ¢â¬ precedes its Ã¢â¬Å"essence. In other words, you create your Ã¢â¬Å"essenceÃ¢â¬ (your self, soul, personality) through the free choices that you make in your daily Ã¢â¬Å"existence. He explains: Man first of all exists, encounters himself, surges up in the world-?and defines himself afterwards. Man simply is-?he is what he wills to be after that leap towards existence. Man is nothing else but that which he makes of himself. This is exactly what distinguishes human consciousness from the rest of the animal kingdom: when confronted with a decision situation, we are able to think about the options available to us and then make a free choice based on our evaluation.And that makes us responsible for our actions, as Sartre explains: If existence is prior to essence, then man is responsible for what he is, it puts very person in possession of himself as he is, and places the entire responsibility for his existence squarely on his shoulders. In today's culture, personal freedom and responsibility are in danger of extinction, threatened by an array of psychological, sociological, and genetic explanations that have the cumulative effect of robbing people of their autonomy and dignity.It is refreshing and enlightening to view people through the lens of personal freedom, awarding them the power to make free choices for which they are responsible, rather than viewing them as victims Of resistance with little control over their destinies. George Bernard Shaw dismissed this Ã¢â¬Å"victimizedÃ¢â¬ view of life when he stated, Ã¢â¬Å"l don't believe in circumstances. Rather than blaming their circumstances, the people who get on in this world create their own. Ã¢â¬ Because You Are Free .This discussion of freedom may seem abstract and theoretical to you, and you might be asking yourself: What difference do my beliefs about personal freedom make in my life? The truth is that along with your beliefs about morality and religion, there is perhaps no other belief that has a greater impact on your life. Here are a few examples. Self-improvement: If you are a person who is constantly striving to improve yourself and the quality of your life, then it is essential that you possess the freedom to make different choices from those you have previously made. Personal freedom is the lifeblood of human change.By using your critical- thinking abilities, you can identify appropriate goals and intelligent alternatives; by exercising your freedom, you can choose the goals and alternatives that best meet your needs and fulfill your ideals. On the other hand, an exclusive belief in one of the Ã¢â¬Å"non-freedomÃ¢â¬ theories (human nature, environmental determinism, etc. Undermines and even eliminates the possibility of changing yourself. The die has been cast, and whatever the future has in store for you, you cannot influence it in any meaningful way. Morality: Morality deals with the way we relate to people around us.Societies have developed moral ideals and prohibitions to help their citizens live together in a harm onious and productive fashion. As a result, most societies consider things like murder, robbery, cheating, stealing, and raping to be Ã¢â¬Å"wrong,Ã¢â¬ and they have enacted laws and punishments to discourage antisocial behavior. On the other hand, most societies consider things like impassion, altruism, sharing in communal responsibilities, and working for the good of everyone as well as yourself to be Ã¢â¬Å"right,Ã¢â¬ and this sort of behavior is encouraged through teaching, exhortation, and example.