Sunday, March 3, 2019
Counterterrorism and home grown terrorist
The problem posed by act of terrorism has received serious concern not only in this surface area plainly likewise in the inter guinea pig community. It poses a real menace and ch everyenge to the nation two-eyed violet and security department, harming the life, dignity and safety of the innocent people. This also weakens the economy and put dangers in all aspect of the states activity. The September 11 terrorist glide paths on in the altogether York and capital letter D. C. killed citizens from 83 countries and (according to the fall in Nations estimates) cost the global economy at least(prenominal) 350 billion dollars.terrorism is proving to be the dark side of globalization, and because of it, new challenges to the country harbor emerged. In order to deal with much(prenominal)(prenominal) a complex phenomenon, it is inhering to shape a comprehensive and nuanced out plication. The nation should take serious stake against terrorism no matter when, where and what form s it occurs, or whom it is targeted. All agencies of the g all all overnment, local or national, including every individual should step up their cooperation in preventing and combating terrorism. How serious a flagellum is native terrorism in the united States?Experts say it is preferably seeming that the next terrorist brush up get out not be the fail of well-trained al-Qaida operatives sent from abroad, but rather that of an Ameri hind end citizen. As al-Qaeda leaders rivet more of their energy on trying to animate others to commit acts of terror, most security and counterterrorism take awayicials believe their message will oscillate with at least some small number of Americans. Such fears run away to focus on American Muslims, and experts say this is logical given juvenile events in Europe.Yet the American Islamic community also has proven unmatched of the governments best resources for preventing the emergence of homegrown Islamic terrorists. Richard A. Falkenra th, New York metropoliss deputy police commissioner for counterterrorism, recently told the Senate Homeland security department direction that the possibility of a homegrown terrorist attack against New York City or some(prenominal) other American city is real and is decline it is hard to anticipate the motives or actions of a homegrown terrorist.Yet contempt the mellowed prob strength of a homegrown terrorist attack, experts say such(prenominal) an event is likely to have a relatively small impact when comp bed to attacks by naturalized terrorist networks but it should be cautioned that self-radicalized individuals and free radicals can become far more severe when they reach out for contain from more established terrorist networks. BODY I. Combating terrorist act To combat the terrorism, expert stresses the imply to grasp two aspects of terrorism Its subside causes and its technological Complexity.The root causes of terrorism, both house servant and international, are varied and complex. peerless set of factor is essentially ideologic and includes ghostlike and ethno nationalistic extremism. southward is the technological complexity, the new terrorist are distinguished by their general ability to use new information and communication technologies. They are also to the full able to exploit technology to enhance their illegal transnational activities (Banlaoi, 2004). II. iii factors that mustiness be considered in dealing with terrorismFirst, it must hold the gradual and painstaking winning of the hearts and mind of disaffected peoples, considerable patience and endurance is required. Second, the political nature of the campaign against terror suggests that such a comprehensive strategy cannot be pursued without full awareness of the potential negative consequences of either action contemplated. Thirdly, a comprehensive strategy must be implemented indoors a substantive two-way framework, and ensure the fullest regional participation. There should be four key of such a strategy, socio economic, coercive, political and technical. Socioeconomic measures, poverty and extreme socioeconomic marginalization are root causes of terrorism. These may be the result of either deficient domestic policies or powerful globalization processes. Hence developed countries should increase trade, coronation and aid linkages with developing countries to enhance their capacities for inviolable governance.Coercive Measures, Strong legal enforcement measures such as freezing of assets and detentions of individuals suspected of complicity in terrorist plots, are the first off line attack in the campaign against terror. Political Measures, terrorist by definition advertize for a political cause, perceived as just or otherwise. Terrorist groups also often feed upon political issues for support/ such as grievances and resister to illegal and armed occupation, oppression, and abuse and denial of civil and political rights.Technical Measu res, It is vitally important that the capacity of the terrorist to plan, fund and implement their activities must be targeted (Banlaoi, 2004). III. The countrys practical measures against terrorist are the following (1) Identification of terrorist,(2) Location and bring in identified terrorists, (3). apprehension of identified terrorist, (4). Prosecution of the identified terrorist and (5), Punishment of the vile terrorist (Marchetti,1976) IV. Anti terrorism program A. There are four (4) fundamental program components associated with the anti terrorist program.The prevention which focuses on international initiative and diplomacy to discourage foreign states from supporting terrorism second is deterrence which emphasizes shelter and security and efforts-essentially target hardening-to discourage terrorist acts, thirdly, the reaction, this consist of operations in reply to specific major acts of terrorism and lastly is prediction, this includes intelligence and counterintellige nce efforts in continues support of the three other program components B. The specific anti-terrorist measures developed and used in fighting terrorismIncludes close international screening of all airlines and passengers for metallic objects, tighter security of diplomatic installations, compilation of watch list terrorist, adoption of measures to sow dissention within terrorist group thru black and gray covert operations. V. Ways to fight terrorism A. There follows a general measures in fighting terrorism, this are resistance of terrorist targets. The terrorist commonly attack strong points such as airports, communications and national offices.Another is the need to expand intelligence gathering in order to founding father particular course of action and forestall the plan of the enemy. The community must also be train for trouble this will be contingent by preparing them to either unusual occurrence like terrorist attacks. The country should give way better international coo peration and negotiate flexibly. Others are dont rule rescues, draw on terrorist affiliate, order selective reprisals, crack down on dangerous airports and tighten airport and seaport security. B.Psychological operations (PSYOPS) overturees in countering terrorist threats. 1. Widespread educational program directed at audience in the affected areas will expose threat to stability and the quality of life by those threat groups 2. High visibility amnesty and secret witness programs could directly attack the organizational integrity and solidarity of those threat groups. 3. Target the rivalries and jealousy existing in those threat groups. 4. Develop constructive relationship among the various disputants to enhance steep level diplomatic talks. C.To develop terrorism counteraction plans and programs, it is necessary to sell threat studies, to provide an understanding of the capabilities and intentions of terrorist groups, Vulnerability surveys, to reveal the weakness that terrori st can attack and Analysis of all the effects of terrorism. D. PSYOPS doctrine prescribes the use off Propaganda Analysis to determine the effects of activities, programs or campaigns. The basic approaches in this occasion are analysis of Source, Contents, Audience, Media, and Effects (SCAME). Propaganda is the primary vehicle of psychological warfare.It includes any activity that affects emotion, attitude and behavior of a target audience (Marchetti, 1976) headquarters GROWN TERRORISM Scott Redd, director of the National Counterterrorism Center, said in a written statement to the Senate that the emergence of home-grown terrorist groups is posing real challenges for U. S. authorities despite law enforcement successes at disrupting potential attacks. Most security and counterterrorism officials believed that the next terrorist attack will not be the work of well-trained al-Qaeda operatives sent from abroad, but rather that of an American citizen.The White Houses National scheme fo r Combating Terrorism says the main terrorist threat today comes from those who exploit Islam and use terrorism for ideological ends. Experts say individuals who are likely to adopt a terrorist political theory cope several qualities youth, unemployment, feelings of alienation, a longing to feel self-importance, and a need to be part of a group. Religion can be make to such individuals, who are then prone to exploitation by profitless religious leaders. R. P.Eddy, senior fellow for counterterrorism at the Manhattan Institute, says, If you think of any ethnical community in this countrythere are people of all stripes. However, he suggests counterterrorism efforts should pay close attention to Muslim communities in the United on lessons from the attacks in Madrid in 2003 and London in 2004, which originated in Muslim communities. The White Houses National Strategy for Combating Terrorism says that the main terrorist threat today comes from those who exploit Islam and use terrori sm for ideological ends. Experts say individuals who are likely to adopt a terrorist ideology share several qualities youth, unemployment, feelings of alienation, a longing to feel self-importance, and a need to be part of a group. Religion can be compelling to such individuals, who are then prone to exploitation by deceitful religious leaders. The relationship between American Muslims and homegrown terrorism. Though many of the homegrown terrorists identified in the United State especially since the 9/11 attacks have been Muslims, it is important to note that religious motivations are not salute in all instances.It is suggested that counterterrorism efforts should pay close attention to Muslim communities in the United States, where al-Qaedas message of radical Islam is more likely to resonate. How have Muslim communities in the United States responded to the growing concern over homegrown terrorists? By and large, American Muslims express great concern over the probability of ho megrown terrorists in their midst. To this end, members of Islamic communities have worked to establish good relationships with U. S. officials, particularly on the local level.Hussein Ibish, executive director of the Hala Salaam Maksoud al-Qaida for Arab-American Leadership, says in terms of counterterrorism efforts, Most of the major successes the government claims within the United States have actually involved cooperation with the local Muslim communities. How have U. S. officials reacted to the prospect of homegrown terrorists? Experts judge government responses as mixed. Generally speaking, the local approach proves most effective. Eddy says local police are the best bill the government has for preventing homegrown terrorists.Good community policingestablishing relationships and keeping abreast of trends in a neighborhood based on common interests other than terrorismunderpins any effort to detect a homegrown plot. Eddy views officers as first preventers and not just as firs t responders, but it remains superjacent on political leaders to support them as such Home-grown cells were a new domestic phenomenon for which the FBI and law enforcement agencies had no baseline for measuring the overcome of the problem CONCLUSION Terrorism is a crime committed by a handful of extremist elements and should not be ad equated with any specific ethnic group or religion.Under no circumstances should double up standards in applying this principle be allowed. To fight terrorism effectively requires efforts to shout out its ideological, socioeconomic and political root causes. This should involve strategies aimed at currently resolving power both current problems and identifying permanent solutions in the long run. An important necessary in this connection is to resolve the question of development and narrow the time out between the rich and the poor. The so called war on terror is not just a war that can be won by sole reliance on military and coercive measures.R ecommendation The country should follow-up and strengthen national mechanism to combat terrorism. Efforts in suppressing sources of funds must be doubled. The country needs to continuously deepen seeking cooperation from allies country in enforcing anti-terrorist program and practices. Develop regional capacity construct programmed to enhance existing capabilities to detect, monitor and report terrorist acts and plans. Strengthen cooperation at the bilateral, regional and international levels in combating terrorism in a comprehensive path and affirm that at the international level.Convene a high level of ad-hoc experts group as the lead to anti terrorism that will continue to focus on the preventions and control of terrorism. To better deter and prevent potential acts of terrorism at home, the state should enact law that will restrict the faeces of those who pose a terrorist threat to the community to include organizations which advocate terrorism. Holds accountable all public a nd private organizations abetting terrorism Calls for greater vigilance and concrete measures against all possible terrorist supplies, materials and finances.The country should designate Cabinet Oversight Committee on Internal Security as the lead to anti terrorism. Americans had to habituate to new security measures that complicated their travel, work, and recreation. United States agencies rearranged their priorities, and local governments scrambled to make preparations for potential terrorist attacks, possibly involving biological, chemical, or even nuclear weapons. References Banlaoi, 2004, War on Terrorism, Rex Bookstore Inc. , Recto Avenue Desker, B. , and Kumar R. ,( 2002) Forging an Indirect Strategy in southeastern United States Asia. The washington Quarterly, Volume 25, No. 2 Dulles, A. , (1972) The Craft of Intelligence, New York, wermer paperback, Marchetti, V. (1976), The CIA and the madness of Intelligence, New York, Pell Agam, H. ,(2001) Measure to Eliminate Intern ational Terrorism New York, newspaper Back. Ganor, B. (2003)Defining Terrorism Is One Mans Terrorist Another Mans Freedom Fighter, http//terror. host. net. kg Homer, D. (2003) The Rise of Complex Terrorism, http//www. Foreignpolicy. com http//counterterrorism. org/mt/pings. cgi/3655 .