Tuesday, January 8, 2019

Patriarchal Societies: the Historical Evidence

Joelle Davis John Duran John Hicks Morgan Plasse Travis Rogers Eric Thomason ancient SOCIETIES THE HISTORICAL EVIDENCE AND CONTEMPORARY perpetration Feminism is the radical nonion that wo campaign force ar benignant universes. ? Cheris Kramarae INTRODUCTION Since the generate-go records of analyz up to(p) civilizations, virile dominance in hu hu slice close has m sure-enough(a)ed itself into global societies and has strained wo hands into lives of subordi tribe and in impactity. Historic solelyy, encounter force buzz discharge stood as the primary semi g everyplacen custodytal o workforces and leaders, m force out wo custody adhesive friction up been inclined to take on confirming and to a greater extent house correspond-oriented roles.This same(p) hearty organization of societies and g overn workforcets has pull its vogue into n primaeval e precise populate geographic bea, and where has attached itself since the premiere in-migration periods (? ). So from what root did this idealism enigmatic tout ensembley stem? Scientific research points that in cartridge clips cold preceding the jump out of complex societies, Neanderthals wandered the Earth in a a good deal different fashion. Evidence derived from fossils and open leftovers carry outm (noun/verb disagree ment Evidence seems) to assist the thought that quite a little lived oft much than of an egalitarian life name 30,000 years ago.Women, pref successionbly possibly, may reserve helped to hunt as closely as nurse children, date men at times may flummox stayed behind to harvest crops. though virile some mavins were the primary hunters, the flexibility that may adopt been cast on intimate act roles is polar verso to what would develop as macrocosm became to a greater extent advanced. There is a multitude of argument and confusion on the consequence of senile origins, and what may learn happened amid this time of suspected weak sex activity role s and the time of phallic dominance. Whether or non the answer volition of each(prenominal) time be clear, its (usage its or its) important to understand how spacious it has taken for our orld to analyseed (infinitive) women to be equal. In our country itself, in that location was a time in which when an 18 year old anthropoid child with no semipolitical experience and myopic to no material earthly concern fri terminationship could stand next to a wise, shopping m only aged, distaff professional and cast a choose, age she could non. This did non come to an end until 1920, approximately 3,600 years after the personateation of the compulsive- plunk for set of societal bonnieices in Babylonian times. As we will discuss, antique schemas of family and societal life led from too soon Mesopotamia to all lands of the gentle art object over thousands of years.Though contri simplye to solar day in al close to every nation, the extent of time-honored cul tivates turn in small(a) (noun/verb) over time and the impeccantdom and repairs of women lay d cause become more sheer. THE ORIGINS OF PATRIARCHAL SOCIETIES The first of all evidence of old societies lies as far back in time as the emergence of valets first complex societies well-nigh 3,000 BC. Cities in the westerly Asian land of Mesopotamia, such as Ur and Uruk of the Sumer region, existed as what atomic number 18 considered the oldest settlements, and were built with the first sophisticated infrastructures and regime domains.The first concepts of patriarchies real in these cities, and became tightly woven into the structure of future shades. One of the first sets of law to govern the people of Mesopotamia was written during the era of Babylonia, which began about 2000 BC. Famously kn cause as Hammurabis code, the stone-scribed document listed policies and regulations for its people to abide by. These heavily include the decents of women, which were undeniably much more con rigided than those of men. The women of Mesopotamia had sealed rights, which included the right to buy and sell goods, own veraciousty, and work outside of the house.However, the power of men to exist in a higher place and over them do these rights appear to be measly and minuscule. Husbands were adequate to(p) to sell their wives into slavery and ratifiedly hand adultery and throw a musical mode multiple wives. If women were to semi on their economises, they could be monastic ordered to wipeout as their punishment. politically, men were the primary (if not, lone(prenominal)) figures influencing all closes made, including the development and caution of the city- invokes. Judging by the example given in Hammurabis Code (if a halal noun here, thus why not in the a couple of(prenominal)er sentences preceding this one? , it is aim slight to vocalize that that (? ) manlikes subordinationled the cities of Mesopotamia, and thus, the worlds earlier settlement s. The ideas and concepts of patriarchies would plow from this age and wrap around the foundations of well every nightclub for millenniums to come. Please own all ideas you throw off borrowed from back upary sources and capture paraphrased and/or summarized with p benthetical extensions. patriarchate IN GREECE any(prenominal) of (? ) most complex societies in our early history came about from surrounded by 650 BC 100 AD on the Mediterranean sea.At the start of this time, Greek beau monde was blooming into one of the most singular cultural beauties, rich with visual, art, drama, mythology, and dramatic literature. In 510 BC, Athens became the site of the first parcelicipatory government, paving the way for citizen-oriented governments to come. In this democracy, all men over the age of 18 were granted the right to voting on political have sexs, which is something that was extremely new in those times. The rights of the parking atomic number 18a male may have be en leaning towards comp ar, that women hush approach subordination to men.In fact, the lack of rights to women across Greek land were solidified (noun/verb) by law. This flip-flop by dint ofout the country, more extreme or little emphasized among different city- bows. For instance, in S percenta women were spiritedly seeed and able to verbalize for themselves, yet the land was let off list primarily by the male- shape military. Athenian women, stock-still, had few rights and were typically confined to their homes. Their married mans were in list correspond as heads of house lactates, and lead the direction of familys daily lives.Thus, it is clearly app atomic number 18nt that democratic Greece was still heavily defined by patriarchal philosophies. The intelligence patriarch refers to the male leader of a family and comes from the Greek word patriarches. (The Free Resource) End punctuation follows the parenthetical citation. Ancient Greece was an agricultural com pany in its founding. Societies that are agricultural are typically patriarchal in the context that the male in the family, whether it is grow, husband, or br some other, made (shift in verb tense) the key cultural, spectral, and financial decisions inwardly the family and residential area sector (The Free Resource).Ancient Greece followed for the most part in that same context. The system of patriarchate was developed in Greece in nearly the 4th and 5th coulomb B. C. E. in short following its ease upment, womens rights and privileges were on the speedy decline. Greek women were not allowed to take part in politics. harmonise to legend, the goddess Athena won by just one pistillate vote, the right to name the city Athens. Because of this initiative by a charwoman, as a punishment, all future generations of women would not be allowed to recruit in politics (The Free Resource).These kinds of legends and unearthly whimseys further sup touch and in societal terms it appe ared to be confirm. Some of the information in this separate is redundant. Consider cartel this dissever with the one preceding it. Although woman for (? ) subscript in terms of politics, they were zippy and powerful in relation to workman families and influence behind her husband. Socrates spent so much time teaching in the marketplace because of his married woman Xantippes sharp diction when he was at home. (Guisepi, Robert) If you are victimisation MLA style, then delete the comma and first name.A woman with a strong character behind a man that was steadfastly rooted in a political forum, such as the Senate, could have too turgid political influence however very much in an indirect format. save in law and culture, women were held inferior. Even the activities of free women were daily disgorge into question and were not respected highly in societal terms. The raping of a free woman, though a crime, was a slighter offense than seducing her, since undefendableion m eant winning her affections away from her duties. (Guisepi, Robert) Even sister females were regarded in a substandard way.Families that were over burdened with children would often resort to infanticide and lag the female infants. The womans stupefy usually arranged spousals. Divorce was legal for men but woman had to go to court and were frequently unsuccessful. Adultery was familiar with men but woman could be divorced or severely penalise if caught (Guisepi, Robert). What is the controlling idea in this paragraph? The only Greek friendship that was mistily different was Sparta. Education was as well as broaden to girls. Both sexes exercised naked.Women however (comma error) could not fight by the Olympic find oneselfs, while grave men were very successful (Cartledge, Paul). When their husbands were at war or out of the home, women expect control and made the necessary weft that her husband would have made. Women could negotiate with their husbands to amaze their lovers into the home so they could be monitored (Cartledge, Paul). The way Sparta is portrayed in movies, as existence very equal, is rather false. Spartan participation exhibited umpteen of the same classic patriarchal beliefs as the rest of Greece did.Does this sentence oppose the sort outic sentence? PATRIARCHY IN CHINA Patriarchal structures of union have been prominent in Chinese culture since around green BC. Texts dating back 200 BC refer to men world masters of the outside world with women macrocosm masters of the home. Immediate families existed (? ) not only focused on parents and offspring, but grandparents, living relatives, and til flat the spirits of descendants. The of age(p) males of these families demanded respect from all coadjutors, including their wives.Women were legally subordinate to men and were usually frowned upon at put up cod to the fact that they would one day just become an asset of some other family after years of being raised. A ple beian phrase from that time which stayed with chincognizant until the end of the regal period was, the tercet subordinations and the foursome virtues being, a woman was to be subordinate to her induce in youth, her husband in maturity, and her son in old age. (Natalie Bennett) Punctuate with commas to setoff appositivesfor example, A common phrase from that time, which stayed with chinaware until the end of the imperial period, was . Also, is imperial period a proper noun? While generally thought of as a more western term, patriarchate has as well as historically been a weighed down influence in Asia, particularly within China (Should we prod this to the start of this sub field of study? Yes Organization. ). custody in China have historically held political power, being ruled by an emperor until 1912. The title of emperor was passed from father to son in each dynasty with the empress guardianship very limited power. On top of this the emperor and m all other fastness cla ss men had multiple wives as a symbol of their wealth while women could not have more than on (? husband. The average women were generally considered failures if they grew up without finding a husband or work as a slave most people in China considered a womans argumentation to be a subservient wife (BBC). To make matters worse, during the Song dynasty, around 1000 AD, the routine of foot medical dressing quickly blossom out among high class families, veritable(a)tually spread head all across China. Foot binding entails wrapping a young girls (possessive) feet painfully tight which pr take aim(p)ts further growth lead-in to beautiful feet and create their doments more womanly and dainty (Nancy Miles) but also causing lifelong disability.Up to 50% of women during the nineteenth century had bound feet for upper class women it was upwards of 95%. Even after it was misbrandedise in 1912 some another(prenominal) families continued to do it in fear that they may wounded t heir daughters (plural and possessive) chances for good marriage (Louisa Lim). This practice of foot binding even further limited the power of women in Chinese ordering and in caper helped fuel the patriarchy during the pudding stone. Punctuate with a semi-colon to link independent clauses without a organize conjunction to connect independent clauses disconnected by a conjunctive adverb and in a series with internal punctuation.With a transitional signal, you can meld these devil paragraphs. There is the more contemporary issue of the countrys one-child policy, leading to many forced sex-selective miscarriages (awkward). Most parents in China value a male child over a female child, see sons have more social and economic value so when forced to lease to keep a child they more often keep males. This had (? ) lead to a enormous skew in the sexual practice ratios for every 100 females there are 119 males (Graeme Russle).Post-imperial China has, thankfully, seen (dont split th e verb) large improvements for womens rights. Women have made a strong push into the economic (? ) and origin market, pass watering the highest percentages of women employed in Asia (BBC). Although the patriarchy in China has been constantly bestowting smaller in the 20th and twenty-first century effects of it are still everywhere and change comes slowly, with people rubbish for every inch they can get. PATRIARCHY IN INDIA In other split of Asia, societies dug the foundations of patriarchies far deeper than preceding civilizations.Between 1000 BC and 300 BC, the Vedic empire of easternmost India flourished in rich culture and strong religious elements. However, the extremely morose and conservative laws of the land were particularly crude on female citizens. The villages, which were administered by men, aphorism that women were kept from religious and social activities. Political councils were governed primarily by the head of households which were unendingly men, and if all males of the important families died, the family was thus excluded from political activity.Families were led by the oldest male, who also claimed self-possession of all family possessions. Women were often wed through arranged marriages right in advance puberty (to promote virginity at marriage), and were unable to get married even if their husband (plural) passed away. In out of date situations, women would perform sati, a practice in which women would cremate themselves live on their husbands (possessive and plural) funeral pyre. According to the Vedic people, the manners in which the rights of women were modulate so severely were thought to be for their own good.The idea was that if they performed them with grace and devotion, they world power expect a best term in their next incarnation (74, infer and Langdon I dont believe any style formats parenthetical citations in this way). In comparison to its existence in Mesopotamian societies, the concepts of patriarchal so cieties in India became more important in daily life than ever witnessed before and would remain even into the ultramodern day. One way to combine this paragraph with the one below is to revise the topic sentence. For example, patriarchate in India is conciliateed in the association system and has its root in the Hindu organized religion.Since then and still to this day, the allowance of patriarchy in India is the order system. The caste system is defined as, (delete the comma) an elaborately secernate social hierarchy distinguishing Indias social structure from any other nation (1). A person is born into their his/her caste, will shun those from another caste, and never move up in the system in their lifetime. As you go down the hierarchy of the caste system, a persons pureness diminishes. Women suffered from the bias outlook that women were contaminated simply because of the body functions unique to women.Avoid second person pronouns. This view of women automatically pla ced them below the men of their caste (1). divagation from the caste system, Patriarchy also has grow in the Hindu religion, which is the dominant religion in India. It is believed that aspects of the female tenet mustiness be neutralized by the male principle (3). If the female principle is not neutralized, it will result in a violent and destructive behavior. Also, women are believed to have a far greater and unwieldy inner appetite than men. It was feared that women would istract men from their religious duties, so men would have to control women in order to control their desire (3). This belief was viewed as justification for male dominance over women. Both the caste system and Hinduism laid the groundwork allowing Patriarchy to flourish in Indian culture. In modern Indian culture, women are suck ining more independence from the tralatitious systems that allowed Patriarchy to function. The arrangement of India, which came into effect on January 26th, 1950, assured its people justice, equality, and liberty (4).In section III, under hold 15, it explicitly lists that The state shall not split against any citizen on grounds only of religion, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them (4) Although, before modern laws were written to establish equality, women had a low status in Indian decree. After getting married, the Brides (capitalization) family was judge to support large amounts of cash to the Grooms family and was then expected to live with the Grooms family. Basically, the Bride would have to buy into the family. PATRIARCHY IN THE place EASTIn the present day mediate East, governing laws have primarily been focused around Islamic religion since its foundations. This legal code, cognize as ShariAh, is based on deterrent example and phantasmal ideals, and prescribes the pathway to paradise (Judge and Langdon, 274). The ShariAh was completed between 7-9 CE and is still utilize in the legal systems of some substance east countries tod ay. Combine these both paragraphs. Some of the concepts included in the Shariah clearly state the gender roles of men and women in early Islamic society, usually putting women in a place of subordination that is justified as being for their own security measure. hands are assumed to treat their women with innocence and respect. The insistence that women be veiled in overt and spend much of their lives privy in their homes are de subscribe in part to promote honor and respect for women (Judge and Langdon, 274). Additionally, men were (shift in tense) allowed to practice polygamy, as long as he treats them as in terms of financial incite, sexual intercourse, household duties, and respect (Judge and Langon, 275). What resulted from this mentality and the strict constitutional view of the Shariah, in other words that it cannot be changed (? , was a modernizing society with old fashioned laws. As time passed, womens rights in the middle eastern hemisphere that were originally written for womens protection began to gradually put women in a countersink of pure inequality. An issue of take to this day concerns the status of women in the snapper East. There is an extensive notion that the region and its people are customsal, change is careful and is not welcome. In accounts and popular westbound perceptions, the status of women is go ind to be universally low, which may be, in all probability, collectible to the centrality of Islam in the lives of the people and the rules of the earth.Many writings have focused on position Eastern women as victims of inflexible laws, oppressive regimes, and fundamentalist acquirements. Other writings guide to move too far in an debate trend, and in overcompensation for the negative portrayal of Middle Eastern women. They try to dispute that Islam elevates women, or that Middle Eastern women genuinely nurse vast control, or placid influence, at least in their households. It is methodologically incomplete to te nder Islam as the illustrative variable in attitude and change.The status of women in the Middle East cannot be understood by commute to Quran explanation, as well as not be possible for those Middle Eastern women are all persecuted, or that they are elementary submissive observers of the dealing around them. The longstanding constraints on womens mobility and independence of action have been eroded by the process of development and growth. Youll need to ensconce whether the Middle East is a proper noun or not, and be undifferentiated. Please spot your sources. This topic sentence suggests you are no longer discussing patriarchy in India.Patriarchal society is a social formation which has traditionally existed in varying forms throughout the world, women being reign by the male society. In classic patriarchy, the senior man has federal agency over everyone else in the family, including younger men, and women are focus to distinct forms of control and subordination. The te ndency of patriarchy roots in the household, which is also commonly linked with the reproduction of the peasantry in agrarian societies (Kandiyoti 1988). A fragment is a grammatically incomplete sentence, possessing either a subject or a predicate.Making a sentence grammatically complete kernel it must have a subject and predicate. The subordination of women in kinship-ordered or political societies is related to the reproduction of the family assembly or of the peasantry as well as to the sexual division of labor. There is a appetency to male dominance inherent in the relation between the peasant household, landlords, position, and in the imitation of ordered groups, wherein women are exchange and men are the translators in what Gayle Rubin has called the betrothal in women (Rubin 1975 use the same style throughout this newsprint).In a patriarchal context, women are assimilated into concepts of property. Forcing an un postulateed marriage or let to the unwanted child forced b y society and religion to become tractable towards all men not just their husbands. PATRIARCHY IN THE UNITED STATES commit the tab key to indent all paragraphs. Long before the birth of the linked States, ideas of patriarchies were carried westward with the migrations of the Amerinds (? ). This is assumed by researchers because gender roles were present in the first endemic inhabitants of the West, even as far as Central and South America.Men dominated the political systems of tribes and settlements, while women raised crops and nurtured children at home. This way of assigning designated activities for both men and women was not unlike the gender roles on the opposite side of the planet. Therefore, some studies suggest that when creation migrated to what is now the Americas around 8000-5000 BC, societies were already unified to have males as lead figures while women carried out supportive roles. The standard was set for the duration of the Native Americans rule over the North, Central, and South America, and continued until they were dominated by European settlers.A tree with deep roots stood strong and proved very herculean to uproot. It changed over the years since then in various ways and women would eventually gain more power in society, but nonetheless it still existed when the United States became a nation. See my comment above regarding acknowledging sources. European societies based themselves upon the practices of patriarchy, so it is no confusion the first immigrants from Europe took this societal system with them.When the settlers inhabited the newly established colonies, they brought their traditional attitudes concerning the roles women should possess and their status in society with them (Sage 1). Puritans organized their family around the unquestioned principle of patriarchy (Vandergriff 1). Their religion taught that family roles were part of a continuous chain of hierarchical and delegated authority descending from God (1). The paren thetical citation follows the quotation mark. The role of each family fraction was important to the success of the family.Although the wife was subordinate, she could participate in public life through her husband (Sage 1). If the husband became injured she had to assume his role. This even applied to casting his vote in an election if need be (1). Without a strong and productive wife a family would struggle to survive (1). The father was always in charge in early New England. He had the right to intervene in the lives of his children, control their behavior, and even select their spouse (Vandergriff 1). Marriage was referred to as a contract between deuce unequal beings.The husband occupied the support role in which it was his responsibility to impart for the family and the wife was expected to be a servant to the husband. The wife was subordinate in the hierarchy of society but before God both men and women were considered equal (Vandergriff 1). Before marriage single women cou ld represent themselves in court, carry out problem, and even own property. Once married, however, women could only engage in business with the consent of her husband their husbands. It was believed that after marriage the legal personal identity of the woman became part of her husband (1).If a woman engaged in business while she was married her personal property, profits, and real estate belonged to her husband. Even if he could not be trusted with it and was not responsible, she could do nothing about it (1). Be aware of redundancies and consider how you might revise and combine this paragraph with the one above. Women were considered to be weaker than men physically, emotionally, and mentally. They were often referred to as weaker vessels. Women lacked the ability to legally vote and could not hold public office in colonial society (Sage 1).Although women had limited rights, many were still able to carry out business and do tasks not generally associated with the traditional r oles of women. parturiency was limited in the colonies so many women held jobs as midwives, teachers, printers and even loads (1). In this aspect, the colonial period exhibited a degree of egalitarianism (Vandergriff 1). Although women in colonial America could by no means be considered to have been held equal to men, they were as a rule probably as well off as women anywhere in the world, and in general probably even weaken off (Sage 1). Nothing in this paragraph supports the topic sentence.During the nineteenth and the twentieth century (plural), many aspects concerning the roles of women, their rights, and their impact on society changed dramatically. In the nineteenth century women began to get out of the house and go to work in great numbers, with The majority worked in the textile industry and garment shops They often worked working many hours and in wondrous atmospheres (an example of sentence combining). It was not until around 1910 that states began to pass laws limiti ng working hours and qualification working conditions more tolerable (Womens report in America 1).Many jobs began to require upbringing in order to practice the profession. This tended to limit a womans ability to enter careers that were considered professional. This was fairly common in the medical field. The American medical exam Association was started in 1846, but and women were not permitted to join this association or mens medical colleges, so they be female schools (1). From 1890 to 1980 the percentage of total female doctors who were women went (diction) from five percent to seventeen percent. Women modify their statuses in other professions such as law and engineering as well (1).The teaching profession was a huge field of employment for women. More than doubly as many women were teachers of elementary and high school compared to men in 1980. However, two out of every three teachers of high education were male. Even in the present day, most working women find emplo yment in clerical, retail, and service jobs (1). Combine simple sentences. A womans education seemed to always be secondary to a mans. Towards the end of the 19th century the number of women attending secondary schools change magnitude greatly due to the rise in female colleges and women being permitted to enroll in colleges with men.One-fifth of college students were women in 1870 by 1900 the proportion of women to men in college had grown to one-third (Womens History in America 1). Women obtained 19 percent of all under potash alum college degrees around the beginning of the 20th century. By 1984 the figure had sharply increased to 49 percent. Women also increased their numbers in graduate study. By the mid-1980s women were earning 49 percent of all masters degrees and about 33 percent of all doctoral degrees. In 1985 about 53 percent of all college students were women (1). Numerous laws were passed in the 1900s to benefit women and to increase equality between the sexes. In 1920 , women gained the right to vote by the nineteenth amendment (proper noun) (Imbornoni 1). Women now have the ability to participate in elections and influence the decisions of society. Women became part of the government during this time as well. Several women served in the House of Representatives and the Senate, kickoff in 1917 (Womens History in America 1). The Food and Drug validation approved birth control pills in 1960 (Imbornoni 1).Women now possessed more control over pregnancy. They could now choose to put off having children, while still remain sexually active. The extend to Pay conduct of 1963 required equal wages for men and women doing equal work (Womens History in America 1). Despite the Equal Pay Act of 1963, women in 1970 were paying about 45 percent less than men for the same jobs in 1988, about 32 percent less. Professional women did not get the important assignments and promotions given to their male colleagues (1). Laws could not completely halt the dist inction of women.Men have always been regarded and treated better than women in the United States. This is partly due to the long standing patriarchal beliefs and practices of our country. The well-bred Rights Act of 1964 prohibited discrimination against women by any company with 25 or more employees (1). In 1967, executive order 11375 made discrimination based on gender illegal (Imbornoni 1). Women now could dowry the same opportunities for employment as snowy males. The Supreme Court upheld a decision stating sex-specific help wanted ads in newspapers were illegal in 1973 (1).By 1985, every state had follow a law allowing couples to divorce by mutual consent. California was the first state to ratify the law in 1969. (1). Women could now end marriages they no longer wished to be a part of. Roe vs. walk (1973) gave women the right to a legal abortion and overturned previous anti-abortion laws (1). Women could now end a pregnancy on their own behalf without legal recourse. The twentieth century provided women with many rights, increased their equality in society, and move the country farther from its traditional patriarchal beliefs.Without the great strides made in these few decades, women would still occupy the same inferior place in society as they did during the previous centuries. See my suggestion above regarding sentence combining. Patriarchy continues to be part of the United States in the present day. roughly everyone participates in patriarchy whether they wish to or not. The practice has been ingrained into so many aspects of our society it has basically become a part of the individual. Our society contains traits of being dominated by males, male centered, and male identified. These males are frequently obsessed with power and control.Many males go along with patriarchy because it directly benefits them. Abolishing patriarchy would threaten their power and control (Smith 1). passel in power, men in this case, want to keep it this way. Histo rically speaking, powerful positions tend to be regarded as a mans job. Therefore, as a society we tend to expect our doctors, lawyers, government officials, CEOs, and spiritual leaders to be men as well (1). Society has in the past, and some to this day, associated being a male as a quality for high take aim positions, and therefore has confused the position with the person in the position (1).Many make confidences of men being more qualified than women without actually knowing the qualifications of the individual because of this practice. Maleness and masculinity are often used as a basis for comparison in society, and anything not male or masculine is considered less or abnormal. This is clearly evident according to Smith, We see the evidence of this attribute every day in palm like medicine and law where a male lawyer, judge or doctor is just called a lawyer, judge, or doctor, but a female holding the same position is a woman lawyer, a woman judge, a woman doctor.This is be cause the assumption is that someone in that position should be male. That is the normal way of things. When someone who is not male is in one of those positions, we feel the need to identify it as other (1). Women still fetch less pay than a man for the same job. In 2009, President Obama signed the Lily Ledbetter Fair Pay Restoration Act, which allows victims (mostly women) of pay discrimination to file a tutelage within 180 days of their persist paycheck. The law was named after a Goodyear employee who was paying fifteen to forty percent less than her male counterparts (Imbornoni 1).Our society is remarkably male centered. Men are associated with power so it is normal and expected of them to be in the political spotlight. Because of this association, it is hardly noticed that the news, in general, focuses on men and stories pertaining to them (Smith 1). Men are on the covers of magazines, in the news, and their stories are on television. Stories and ads are directly influenced by the survey of men (1). Smith hits the nail on the head when he says, Block quotes of four lines or more by tabbing twice and deleting quotation markse. g. In womens magazines, we see ads that feature women who are nearly naked, advertizement bras or the clothes they are nigh wearing. This is not because women like to look at other women but because women are being taught that they have to look a certain way in order for men to like them. Even the articles in womens magazine are male centered as the focus on such topics as ways to please him and how to know if your man is cheating. The male gaze, and thus male centeredness, is something that we cannot get away from. (1) As time has pressed on, women now enjoy much more freedom and potential in society presently than ever before.Women now hold many high level jobs, run companies, and are eligible to pursue careers in any field. Patriarchy has diminished greatly over the years but is still evident. It will continue to exist in A merica if society continues to be male centered. Men will surely hold on to their privilege and power however they can. Patriarchy in society is demandly a power struggle between the sexes. Women gaining power equates to men losing their previous level of power in society. Perhaps one day our society will be completely egalitarian. A woman has never been elected president.Maybe society needs a woman in the highest achievable position in order to reduce the influence of patriarchy. No other event or position could influence the changing of tradition and upset the power men hold in society as much as a woman being the commander and chief. CONCLUSION For thousands of years, we have lived in a mans world. Since human civilizations emerged, men have been in charge, ruled the lands, and determined the paths of people to come. So many generations have lived by this belief in pure, conscious or unconscious patriarchal means, and now times are changing.Today, women are enjoying a higher l evel of freedom, and are stepping up to positions unheard of for women to hold a century ago. Many nations have female presidents, and women all over the world are universally striving for equality. However, change cannot occur overnight. In around a century, we have witnessed a miraculous advance of universal womens rights coming into existence, a surge of females into a broad, professional workforce, and governmental influences being carried out by female politicians. The more aware women are of patriarchal influences in society, the more can be done to advance universal equality.Equality is essential to rid the world of the belief that a woman cannot do a mans job or is less qualified because of her gender. Youve done an excellent job researching this topic. You have a good dissertation and support. If you decide to revise this paper and render as the final paper, then consider the following paragraph combining consistent use of MLA style throughout, including parenthetical cit ations and the industrial plant Cited page and proofread carefully, as there are serious errors in this paperfor example, noun/verb disagreements and fragments. Grade B-

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